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:.% 



Q, -G 






OF 



COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 



Al HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIBCE, MASS. 



Jfounirt 6s ptitate subscription, fn 1861. 



Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 

No. // S~f% 



OCT 18 1895 



THE 



RAT SOCIETY. 

7/ 

INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1893. 



LONDON 



MDCCCXCV. 



THE LAEVJ1 



OP THE 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 



AND 



MOTHS. 



BY 

(THE LA.TE) 

WILLIAM BUCKLER. 



EDITED BY 

GEO. T. POBRITT, F.L.S. 



Vol. VI. 

(THE THIRD AND CONCLUDING PORTION OF THE NOCTU^].) 



LONDON; 
PRINTED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY. 



MDCCCXCV. 



MCZ LIBRARY 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAMBRIDGE. MA USA 



PRINTED BY ADLAED AND SON. 
BAETHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVEB SQUAEE, W. 



PREFACE. 



It was with the greatest reluctance that I under- 
took the editing of this work in succession to the late 
Mr. H. T. Stainton. My time was so completely 
occupied with other matters that at first I felt it 
would be impossible for me to accede to the request of 
the|Eay Society ; and it was only when it seemed likely 
that the further publication of the work might other- 
wise be indefinitely delayed, together with a promise 
from my friend Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, of Leeds, 
that he would assist me by copying out the manuscript 
for the letterpress, etc., that I consented. 

The present volume completes Mr. Buckler's de- 
scriptions and figures of the Noctuao. There were 
drawings of nearly all the species, but in the case of 
many no accompanying descriptions. Fortunately 
these omissions were almost entirely of species well 
known, and described in all histories of the British 
Lepidoptera, and which Mr. Buckler had evidently 
not considered it worth while to re-describe. For the 
same reason (as in the last volume) it has not been 
thought necessary to introduce fresh descriptions 
here. 

Considerable delay was again occasioned through 



VI PREFACE. 

the artist's inability (through illness, etc.) to proceed 
sufficiently fast with the colouring of the plates, and 
eventually the difficulty had to be overcome by the 
employment of Mr. F. W. Frohawk, whose beautiful 
work during the last few years in the delineation of 
larvse is so well known. 

GEO. T. PORRITT. 



Crosland Hall, Htjddersfield ; 

February, 1895. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VI 







PAGE 


Ereinobia ochroleuca . . . . .1 


Dianthsecia albimacula 










3 


— caesia . 










6 


— barrettii 










9 


— irregularis 










13 


Polia chi 










15 


— flavocincta 










17 


— nigrocincta 










18 


Dasypolia teuipli . 










19 


Epunda lutulenta . 










24 


— nigra 










27 


Agriopis aprilina . 










30 


Phlogophora meticulosa 










30 


— empyrea 










34 


Aplecta herbida . 




. 






36 


— occulta 










39 


— tincta 










44 


— advena 










. 45 


Hadena adusta 










. 47 


— protea 










48 


— dentina 










50 


— suasa. 










. 52 


— thalassina 










53 


— genistse 










. 55 


— rectilinea 










. 56 


Cloantha solidaginis 








, 


. 58 


Xylina rhizolitha . 










. 60 


— semibrunnea . 










. 62 


— conformis 










. 63 


Cucullia verbasci . 










. 67 


— scrophularise . 










. 68 


— gnaphalii 


. 








. 69 


— umbratica 










71 



Vlll 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VI. 



Heliothis armigera 

— dipsacea 
Anarta melanopa 

— cordigera 
Heliodes arbuti 
Agrophila sulpliuralis 
Acontia luctuosa 
Erastria fuscula 
Bankia bankiana 
Hydrelia uncana 
Brephos notlia 
Plusia orichalcea 

— bractea 

— iota . 

— pulchrina 

— gamma 

— interrogationis 
Toxocampa cracca3 
Stilbia anomala 
Catocala fraxini 

— nupta 

— promissa 

— sponsa 
Euclidia mi 

— glyphica 
Phytometra senea 



List of Parasites bred from those species of the Noctuina which 
are included in this volume 



Index 



page 

73 

75 

78 

80 

83 

89 

90 

92 

94 

96 

98 

100 

103 

107 

110 

112 

115 

117 

118 

119 

121 

121 

127 

130 

132 

134 



138 



. 141 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES 



IN THIS VOLUME. 



HETEROCERA. 



PAGE 



PLATE 



Group NOCTUINA. 






Family Hadenid^. 






Eremobia ochroleuca 


1 


... LXXXVII, fig. 1 


Dianthseeia carpophaga 




... LXXXVII, fig. 2 


„ capsincola . 




... LXXXVII, fig. 6 


„ cucubali 




... LXXXVII, fig. 7 


„ albimacula 


3 


, , , 


,, csesia . 


6 


... LXXXVII, fig. 3 


„ barrettii 


9 


... LXXXVII, fig. 5 


„ irregularis . 


. 13 


... LXXXVII, fig. 4 


Hecatera dysodea . 




... LXXX VIII, fig. 1 


,, serena . 




... LXXX VIII, fig. 2 


Polia chi 


. 15 


... LXXX VIII, fig. 3 


„ flavocincta . 


. 17 


... LXXXVIII, fig. 4 


,, nigrocincta . 


. 18 


... LXXXVIII, fig. 5 


Dasypolia templi . 


. 19 


... LXXXIX, figs. 1-5 


Epunda lutnlenta . 


. 24 


XO,fig.l 


nigra 


. 27 


XC, fig. 2 


„ viminalis . 




XC, fig. 3 


„ lichenea . 




XO, 6g. 4 


Miselia oxyacanthsa 




XCI, fig. 1 


Agriopis aprilina . 


. 30 


XCI, fig. 2 


Phlogophora meticulosa 


. 30 


XCI, fig. 3 


„ empyrea . 


. 34 


XCI, fig. 4 


Euplexia lucipara . 




XCI, fig. 5 


Aplecta herbida . 


. 36 


XCII, fig. 1 


„ occulta . 


. 39 


XCII, fig. 2 


„ nebulosa . 




XCII, fig. 3 


VOL. VI. 




b 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



Family HADENiDiE (continued). 
Aplecta tincta 

„ advena 
Hadena adusta 

„ protea 

„ glauca 

„ dentina 

„ chenopodii 

,, atriplicis 

,, suasa 

,, oleracea 

„ pisi . 

„ thalassina 

„ contigua 

„ genista? 

„ rectilinea 



Family Xylinid^e. 

Xylocampa lithorhiza 
Cloantha solidaginis 
Oalocampa vetusta 
„ exoleta 

Xylina rhizolitha . 
,, semibrunnea 
„ petrificata . 
,, conformis . 
Cucullia verbasci . 

scrophularia? 

lychnitis . 

asteris 

gnaphalii 

absinfchii . 

chamomile 

nmbratica 

Family Heliothidje. 
Heliothis marginata 
„ peltigera 
,, armigera 
„ dipsacea 
Anarta melanopa . 
„ cordigera . 
„ myrtilli . 
Heliodes arbuti 



PAGE 



PLATE 



44 


XCII, fig. 4 


45 


XCII, fig. 5 


47 


XCIII, fig. 1 


48 


XCIII, fig. 2 


• • < 


XCIII, fig. 3 


50 


XCIII, fig. 4 


. , 


XCIII, fig. 5 


, . 


XCIY, fig. 1 


52 


XCIV, fig. 2 


... 


XCIY, fig. 3 


»• « 


XCIY, fig. 4 


53 


XCIY, fig. 5 


, , 


XCY, fig. 1 


55 


XCY, fig. 2 


56 


XCY, fig. 3 




XCY, fig. 4 


58 


XCY, fig. 5 


.. 


XCYI, fig. 1 




XCYI, fig. 2 


60 


XCVI,fig. 3 


62 


XCYI, fig. 4 


. • • 


XCYI, fig. 5 


63 


XCYI, fig. 6 


67 


XCYII, fig. 1 


68 


XCYII, fig. 2 


. . . 


XCYII, fig. 3 


t • • 


XCYIII, fig. 1 


69 


XCYIII, fig. 2 


,. 


XCYIII, fig. 3 


. • t 


XCYIII, fig. 4 


71 


XCYIII, fig. 5 




XCIX, fig. 1 


,, 


XCIX, fig. 2 


73 




75 


XCIX, fig. 3 


78 


C, fig. 1 


80 


C, fig. 2 


... 


C, fig. 3 


83 


C, fig. 4 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



XI 



PAGE 



PLATE 



Family Acontid^. 



Agrophila sulpburalis . 


. 89 


C, fig. 5 


Acontia luctuosa . 


. 90 


CI, fig. 1 


Family Ekasteid^e. 






Erastria venustula 


• . 


CI, fig. 2 


„ fuscula . 


. 92 


CI, fig. 3 


Bankia bankiana . 


. 94 


CI, fig. 4 


Family Anthophilid^e. 






Hydrelia uncana . 


. 96 


CI, fig. 5 


Family Phal^noid^. 






Brephos parthenias 


. 


CI, fig. 6 


„ notba 


. 98 


01, fig. 7 


Family Plusid^e. 






Abrostola urticae . 




CII, fig. 1 


,, triplasia 




OH, fig. 2 


Plusia oricbalcea . 


. 100 




„ chrysitis . 




on, fig. 3 


„ bractea 


. 103 


CII, fig. 4 


„ festucse 




CII, fig. 5 


,, iota . 


. 107 


CII, fig. 6 


„ pulchrina . 


. 110 


CII, fig. 7 


„ gamma 


. 112 


CII, fig. 8 


,, interrogationis . 


. 115 


CII, fig. 9 



Family Gonopterid^:. 
Gonoptera libatrix 

Family Amphipyrid^. 

Ampbipyra pyramidea . 

„ tragopogonis 

Mania typica 
„ maura 

Family Toxocampid^e. 

Toxocampa pastinum . 
„ craccse 

Family Stilbid^s. 
Stilbia anomala 

Family Catocalid^:. 
Catocala fraxini . 
„ nupta 



cm, fig. i 



• • • 


CIII, fig. 2 

cm, fig. 3 

CIII, fig. 4 
CIII, fig. 5 


117 


CIV, fig. 1 
CIV, fig. 2 


118 


CIV, fig. 3 


119 
121 


CIV, fig. 4 
CIV, fig. 5 



Xll CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 

PAGE PLATE 

Family Oatocalid^j (continued). 

Catocala promissa . . . 121 ... CV, fig. 1 

sponsa . . . .127 ... CV, fig. 2 

Family Etjclidid^j. 

Euclidiami . . . '. .130 ... CV, fig. 3 

glyphica . _. . , 132 ... CV, fig. 4 

Family Poaphilid^. 

Phytometra aenea .... 134 . . . C V, fig. 5 



THE LABViE 



OF THE 



BRITISH MOTHS. 



Eremobia ochroleuoa. 
Plate LXXXVII, fig. 1. 

On the 22nd June, 1870, in striking at a specimen 
of Lycdena alsus in an old chalk-pit, I took in my net 
by chance a very delicate-looking, active, Noctua larva, 
which was quite a stranger to me. Believing I had 
obtained it from Anthyllis vulneraria, I put some of 
this plant with the larva into a box ; but, on looking 
at it late in the evening, I saw it had not eaten any of 
the vetch, and seemed eager to escape. 

As I could remember nothing but grass besides the 
Anthyllis growing in the spot where it was taken, I 
w^nt out in the twilight and gathered a little of the 
first species of grass that came to hand, without 
noticing what it was. 

Next morning I was very pleased to see that the 
larva had partaken freely of the grass ; and having by 
me at this time, potted, a growing tuft ofNardus striata 
— a species I had noted on the dry grassy slopes 
where I had been the day before, I too hastily 
assumed this to be the proper food of my captive, and 
placed it thereon, securing it with a glass cylinder. 
As my attention at this time was fully taken up by 

VOL. vi. 1 



2 EREMOBIA OCHROLETJCA. 

many other larvae, I forgot to look at my unknown for 
some days ; and when I saw it again it was not the 
least grown, nor did it look well. This made me 
resort to other grasses, but without effect ; and I had 
the mortification of seeing it, day by day, become 
smaller and feebler, till on the 2nd of July it died. 
But before the breath was quite out of its shrunken 
body my regrets were banished, thanks to Mr. W. H. 
Harwood, of Colchester, who sent me on July 1st a 
larva precisely similar in form and colour, but much 
larger in size ; and, what was still better, feeding away 
hopefully on its proper food — the seeds in a panicle of 
cock's-foot grass (Dactylis glomerata). ' 

In order to make quite sure of this being its proper 
food, I gathered fresh panicles of this grass, as well as 
of two or three other kinds, and put them in with the 
larva ; but I saw that it roamed over the other kinds 
till it found the seeds of the cock's-foot grass, and then 
attacked them ravenously, thus perfectly satisfying 
every doubt. On the 3rd of July it retired to earth ; 
and on the 30th the perfect insect came forth. 

This full-grown larva varied in no respect from that 
which I had myself taken, save in size, for it was 
twice as large. It was one inch and a half in 
length, cylindrical, of moderate and uniform stoutness 
throughout, including the head, the lobes of which 
were rounded and full ; the legs and pro-legs all well 
developed. 

Its ground-colour was a bright but very pale opaque 
whitish-green ; the very broad dorsal stripe whitish, 
the subdorsal stripe similar, but a trifle less in breadth. 
Between this and the spiracles the ground-colour 
became a little deeper; was bordered along the 
spiracles by a narrow stripe of full deep green ; the 
subspiracular inflated stripe whitish ; the belly and 
legs of the ground-colour, a trifle darker than the 
back. The head was also of the pale ground-colour, 
with a blackish streak across the mouth, and was 
more polished than the surface of the body, though 



ERBM0B1A OCHROLEUCA. 3 

that was rather glossy ; the folds of the segmental 
divisions appeared white ; the spiracles were black, as 
well as all the tubercular dots, which were plainly 
visible in their usual situations, those on the back 
smaller than the others, and every one of them fur- 
nished with a fine whitish hair ; the anterior legs also 
spotted with black. (W. B., November 25th, 1870 ; 
B.M.M., June, 1871, VIII, 21.) 



DlANTH^CIA ALBIMACULA. 

On the 19th July, 1873, I had the pleasure of 
receiving from Mr. Stainton five larvae in different 
stages of growth, which had been found feeding on 
the unripe seeds of Silene nutans by Mr. H. Moncreaif; 
these I at once saw were a species of Dianthxcia new 
to me, and, on referring to an extract from the 
' Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France ' 
published in 1830, I found there an account of 
D. albimacula by M. Guenee, which seemed to suit 
them well; I would not, however, venture upon 
publishing the notes I made of them until their 
identity had been established beyond doubt, and 
this has now been done most satisfactorily. Mr. 
MoncreafF has bred a specimen of D. albimacula as 
early as the 6th of May from the larvse he collected 
last summer, by placing some of the pupae in a warm 
room. We are now sure, therefore, that D. albimacula 
is a species which breeds in England. For some 
years it had been relegated to the list of reputed 
British species (though Stainton's ' Manual ' kept it 
in its place) until the announcement of its re-discovery 
in 1865, by the capture of a single specimen which 
was sent to Dr. Knaggs for identification, as recorded 
in the 1st volume of the ' Entomologists' Monthly 
Magazine,' p. 237. 

The larvse I had fed well on the Silene nutans that 
accompanied them, and soon ate out the contents of 



4 DIANTH^O[A ALBIMAOULA. 

the capsules, of which Mr. Moncreaff kindly sent a 
further supply, and when these dried up I found the 
three younger larva3 (two having already turned to 
pupse) take very well both to Silene inflata and to 
8. maritima, and between the 14th and 25th of 
August they retired into the soil prepared for them. 

The young larva when a quarter of an inch long is 
of a greenish-grey colour, and darker than it after- 
wards becomes ; at this time it has pale dorsal and 
subdorsal lines, with a darker stripe along the 
spiracles, bounded above by a paler undulating line ; 
some faint darker marks along the back indicate the 
rudiments of the future dorsal design ; a pale stripe 
runs beneath the spiracles, and the belly is darker 
greenish-grey. At its next moult, when about three- 
eighths of an inch long, the ground-colour is either a 
pale drab or pale ochreous-yellow with the design of 
dark grey or blackish diamond shapes and spots on 
the back tolerably distinct ; and when it has attained 
the length of about three-quarters of an inch the whole 
pattern of its markings is (as usual) more clearly 
defined than at any other period, composed as they 
are of closely aggregated greyish or blackish atoms, 
which, as the larva grows, become more dispersed with 
increasing intervals of the ground-colour between 
them ; but in this clearly defined stage of marking the 
ground-colour is yellowish-ochreous, the dorsal pattern 
consisting of a somewhat ovate blackish spot at the 
beginning, followed by a diamond- or pear- shape 
extending to the end of each segment ; the front half 
of each of these pears or diamonds is rather bare of 
freckles within its outline, showing the ground-colour 
there more or less, while the hinder part is filled up 
so as to look blackish ; the anterior pairs of tubercular 
black dots show distinct on the clear unfreckled 
ground of the back ; the hinder pairs of dots are often 
attached to the lateral angles of the diamond-shapes, 
but not invariably so, though they are always touched 
by a blackish line of freckles that curves or festoons 



DIANTH^CIA A LB) MACULA. 5 

along from the hinder dot of one segment to the hinder 
dot of the next; beneath this is the subdorsal 
interval of clear and paler ground-colour; and then 
come two broad and irregularly thickened stripes of 
freckles, which about the middle of each segment 
slope towards each other till they touch, then returning 
to their previous level ; the ground in the space just 
below the point of contact is filled with freckles 
which partly surround the white spiracle outlined 
with black. 

The larva when full grown measures one and a 
quarter inches in length, is of moderate stoutness, 
cylindrical, with the head a trifle smaller than the 
second segment, which is in turn a little less than the 
third, the anal segment tapering a little behind. Its 
ground-colour now is pale ochreous or pale brownish- 
ochreous ; the head is delicately freckled and streaked 
with dark brown down the front of each lobe ; the 
second segment has a dark brown or brownish-grey 
plate through which the fine dorsal and broader sub- 
dorsal lines of ground-colour are visible ; on the rest 
the dorsal line can be faintly discerned as a fine thread 
of ground-colour running through the dorsal blackish 
spots and ill-defined pear-shapes that follow them ; 
both front and hind pair of black dots are now equally 
distinct on the back of each segment, and a similar 
dot is situated a little above each spiracle, which last 
is whitish, faintly outlined with black ; a patch of dark 
grey or blackish freckles anteriorly in the subdorsal 
region, and some broken patches of lines of freckles 
extending in curves to the spiracular region on each 
segment, are now the only remains of the design 
mentioned in the previous stage, this change having 
been brought about by the scattering of the dark 
atoms which before were confined in lines ; the belly 
and legs are of the ground-colour. 

As will be seen from what follows, there is con- 
siderable resemblance between this larva and some of 
its congeners, but to my eye its most striking charac- 



6 DIANTH^OIA ALBIMACULA. 

teristic is the absence of the slanting streaks or chevrons 
which they so generally have. 

The pupa is little more than five-eighths of an inch 
long, stout in proportion, the wing-, antennae-, and 
trunk-cases projecting in a blunt point over the abdo- 
men, which tapers off gradually ; the abdominal rings 
are partly granulous ; the colour of the thorax and 
wing-cases is deep reddish-brown, the abdomen dark 
brown. 

M. Gruenee has observed of the larva of D. albimacula 
that " in a manner it resembles that of D. capsincola, 
and when they are together on the same plant they 
afford fine exercise for the eyes to distinguish them. 

"It is found upon Silene nutans, and sometimes, but 
much more rarely, on Silene inflata. In captivity it 
accommodates itself well to these two plants, also to 
Lychnis dioica. 

" This caterpillar is not rare where Silene nutans 
grows, that is to say in the arid and hilly places of 
certain woods." (W. B., May 11th, 1874; E.M.M., 
June, 1874, XI, 16.) 



DlANTH^CIA O^SIA. 

Plate LXXXVII, fig. 3. 

Towards the end of June, 1867, I received two 
small larvsD of this species, scarcely half an inch long, 
from Mr. C. S. Gregson, who sent with them a couple 
of flowers and a leaf or two of Silene maritima, and 
instructions to feed them on the flowers and leaves of 
that plant. Perhaps for want of sufficient air in their 
small box during the journey in hot weather, one 
arrived in a dying state, and though much attention 
was paid to the survivor, that also soon sickened and 
died. 

I noted that this little larva was of a grey colour, 



DIANTH^EOIA OiESIA. 7 

marked with a series of dorsal diamonds of a darker 
brownish-grey, and the sides of the same brownish- 
grey, and the tubercular dots distinct as dark rings. 

The next and only subsequent opportunity for 
studying this larva was generously afforded me by Mrs. 
Hutchinson, of Leominster, who, knowing that D. 
csesia (at that time a comparatively recent addition to 
our list) was still one of my desiderata, very kindly 
sent me, on July 23rd, 1869, some examples of larvae 
which her son, Mr. Thomas Hutchinson, had recently 
found on Silene maritima in the Isle of Man, in the 
hope that I might find that species amongst them ; 
nor, indeed, was this a forlorn hope, for on looking 
over the larvae — mostly familiar enough — I detected 
one which at once recalled to mind the D. csesia of 
1867. This I kept apart, and carefully tended with 
seeds of both Silene maritima and 8. inflata, and it 
appeared to feed very well on both, without any 
apparent preference. At its arrival it was about five- 
eighths of an inch in length, by the 31st it had in- 
creased to an inch, and by August 9th to one inch 
and a quarter, perhaps even a little more when 
thoroughly stretched out ; it continued to feed for a 
day or two longer, and retired into the soil on the 
13th for pupation. 

Having but this one, I did not interfere with it to 
take notes of the pupa, lest I might by some accident 
destroy the chance of breeding the perfect insect, and 
so lose the opportunity for proving that the figures 
taken of the larva were rightly named. Fortunately 
the moth, a fine example, appeared on July 15th, 1870, 
evidently later than its parents had flown in their 
native haunts. 

In several of the Dianthdecise we are familiar with 
variations of the chevron pattern, but from all 
its congeners D. csesia is strikingly distinguished by 
these diamond-shapes of freckles, as well as by the 
absence of positive outlines in the subdorsal and 
spiracular regions. The description given above of 



8 DIANTHiEOIA 02BSIA'. 

the larva of 1867 suits every subsequent stage up to 
full growth. 

The full-grown larva was cylindrical, of moderate 
stoutness and about equal bulk throughout; the head 
rounded, and the anal segment only slightly tapered, 
and rounded off ; the segments and sub-divisions very 
well defined. The ground-colour on the back was 
pale greyish-ochreous, that of the sides, belly, and legs 
similar, but a little more ochreous-brown, and deeper; 
on each segment, and co-extensive with it in length 
and in breadth, extending to the subdorsal region, was 
a diamond-shaped mark, composed of dark grey-brown 
freckles thickly aggregated together ; a broad band of 
similar freckling commenced along the subdorsal 
region and terminated rather below the spiracles ; 
other freckles, fainter and farther apart, were low on 
the sides, disappearing gradually towards the legs, 
which were tipped with broad hooks ; the head shining 
reddish- brown, the plate on the second segment was 
rather shining reddish grey-brown, and had a broad 
dark brown margin in front ; the tubercular dots were 
whitish centres in rings of dark grey-brown, arranged 
in threes on either side the back of each segment; 
others, whose place was within the side band of 
freckles, were of the ground colour ; the spiracles pale 
brown, outlined with black; just at the last, when the 
larva was in its plumpest condition, the last three 
segments appeared to taper a little. 

There was a faint indication at first of a dorsal line 
or thread of pale ground-colour enclosed within two 
dark grey-brown ones, but not very visible beyond the 
thoracic segments, excepting just at the segmental 
divisions. (W. B., July, 1872 ; E.M.M., August, 1872, 
IX, 64.) 



DIANTH^CIA BARRETT1I. 



DlANTHiEOIA BARRETTII. 

Plate LXXXVII, fig. 5. 

For the exposition of the habits of this rare species, 
which, so far as at present known, seems confined to 
a part of the Irish coast, I am greatly obliged to 
Mr. E. G. Meek, who kindly sent me nine eggs laid 
by a captured female, four of them on part of a flower 
calyx of Silene maritima, to which they adhered, and 
five loose. 

I received the eggs in July, 1878, when nothing 
seemed to be known of the larval food-plant for 
certain, though I then heard from a kind friend of 
great experience that Statice armeria might be a likely 
plant to try, as well as that on which the eggs had 
been laid, and which was naturally also suggested by 
the insect's generic name of Dianthsecia. 

Seven of the eggs were hatched in the evening of 
July 10th, the other two next morning, and the little 
larvse were quite remarkable for their activity and 
robustness as soon as they were out of the shells, 
marching vigorously over small sprays of the two 
plants above mentioned provided for them. 

During the next day three of the larvae were eating 
out little sinuous channels in leaves of the Silene, 
surrounding themselves with frass, and by the third 
day had worked their way into the stems at the axils 
of the leaves, where they had also thrown out little 
heaps of frass. Similar indications showed that one 
individual had entered a seed-capsule from within the 
flower calyx ; the others were still to be seen roaming 
about at intervals until it occurred to me to try them 
with a small piece of the root of the plant, as well also 
of that of the Statice, when they all soon after dis- 
appeared. 

On the fourth day, while inspecting the piece of 
root of 8. maritima, I detected two small holes in it 



10 DTANTHiEOIA BAKRETTII. 

with heaps of minute pale cream-coloured frass adher- 
ing to them ; and on the seventh day I examined the 
axil of a stem and leaf, where I found a larva had 
mined its way downwards and was lying a quarter of 
an inch below in the stem, waiting apparently for its 
first moult, but my stripping away half the stem to 
expose it proved fatal, for it soon after died. 

About this time 1 began to realise the intentions of 
the infant larvae, and conld but lament the jeopardy 
my experiment had placed them in, on finding the 
bits of plant were losing their freshness, and the 
impossibility of rescuing the tiny creatures from their 
perilous positions, for each attempt made proved fatal 
in a short time to those in the stems ; soon, too, the 
bit of root began to turn mouldy, and a fresh piece 
was placed beside it, and on the eleventh day I had 
the satisfaction to see a heap of frass thrown out of 
it — a proof of one still alive and within the fresh piece. 

In the meantime I had satisfied myself that neither 
flowers, leaves, nor root of Statice armeria had been 
attacked, and therefore had potted two plants of 
Silene maritim,a, having good roots and close together 
in the pot, and there, between those roots just beneath 
the surface of earth, I wedged in tightly the bit of 
root containing the sole surviving larva, on July 23rd. 

On September 13th I turned out the contents of the 
pot, by inverting it, to search for the larva, but no 
search was needful, for the soil had been more sandy 
at the bottom of the pot than elsewhere, and now 
formed the top of a cone, and this slipping away, the 
larva at once rolled into view ; it had evidently done 
feeding, and a great quantity of pale frass, quite 
fresh, filled up a large cavity in the shoulder of the 
thickest root ; if it made any chamber or gallery the 
falling away of the light earth had quite destroyed it. 

When the larva was placed in a small pot with 
some of the earth it did not burrow underneath, but, 
after much wandering about, eventually settled down 
under a fragment of root, and there changed to a 



DIANTMCIA BAWRETTII. 11 

pupa on September 17th; the moth, a male, emerged 
on the evening of June 27th, 1879. 

The egg in shape is round, somewhat flattened, 
and with a slight depression beneath, the surface very 
finely ribbed and reticulated ; the colour very pale 
greenish-buff, and on July 6th, when first in my posses- 
sion, showed a faintly darker speck at the top, and 
by the 9th of the month the embryo was seen through 
the shell as a dark spot on one side, and this next day 
was increased in size and in depth, of a leaden hue, while 
the rest of the shell was tinged with brownish-grey, 
when the hatching soon began. 

The young larva at first is of a very pale rather 
greenish-drab colour, with blackish head and narrow 
blackish plate on the second segment. After the first 
moult, when the larva has fairly become an internal 
feeder, its head is shining reddish-brown, and the 
narrow shining plate on the second segment is of similar 
colour but a little paler, the rest of the body tinged 
with livid reddish-grey, the skin rather shining and 
semi-transparent, through which a dark internal vessel 
is visible, the anterior legs reddish-brown. 

The full-fed larva measures about one inch and a 
quarter in length, stoutest at the third and fourth 
segments, the second tapering a little to the smaller 
and rather narrow head, with lobes deeply defined at 
back of the crown, tapering also from the tenth to the 
anal extremity; the ventral and anal legs short, and well 
beneath the body ; the segments very lightly and finely 
wrinkled towards the well-cut divisions on the back, 
the sides much dimpled. The colour of the head is red- 
dish-fawn and shining, the lobes outlined on the face 
with blackish-brown, defining well the triangular divi- 
sion and the upper lip, and below this the mouth itself. 
The body is of a light fawn inclining to flesh colour ; 
a narrow scale-like plate, of glossy pale yellowish -fawn 
colour, is on the second segment, with an interval of 
the paler skin towards the head ; a similar plate is on 
the anal flap, and a dorsal vessel of brownish-grey 



12 DIANTH.ECIA BARRETTII. 

shows faintly through the skin ; the rather small 
tubercular dots are fawn colour, each with a short 
bristle, spiracles black, anterior legs pale fawn colour, 
the ventral and anal legs with a fringe of dark brown 
hooks. 

The pupa is three-quarters of an inch long, the head 
and shoulders rounded off, the wing-covers wrapped 
close to the body, and the antennae and legs enclosed 
in a blunt rounded projection at their ending, a little 
free from the body; from thence the abdominal rings are 
deeply cut and taper gradually to the tip, furnished 
with two small spines. Its colour is dark red-brown 
until about a week or so before the emergence of the 
moth, when by degrees paler patches of yellowish- 
brown appear on the wing-covers ; the smooth abdo- 
minal divisions are dull, but all the rest of the surface 
is glossy, although the other parts of the abdomen and 
thorax are finely punctate. 

I have to revert now to that only larva which, 
whether by mistake or not, ate its way into a seed- 
capsule, whose appearance in the second stage of 
its larval life is described in the foregoing. When 
about to open the capsule I expected to find the larva 
dead, as the little heap of minute whitish frass made 
on its first entering had not been accumulating and 
stili remained blocking the small hole* and was hard 
and dry. But the larva, greatly to my surprise, was 
alive, had moulted once, had grown and prepared for 
a second moult, while the unripe seeds were nearly all 
devoured and converted into frass, perfectly black. 
On carefully exposing the larva to take note of its 
altered condition, work of only a few minutes, yet 
in that short time it became more and more languid, 
as I judged from the exposure to air, and I hastened 
to place it inside a fresh calyx with seed capsule, 
forgetting at the moment that it was unable to use its 
mandibles, from the head having been too far drawn 
back from the head-piece in front, in anticipation of 
moulting; but it soon became inert, and died- 



DIANTHiEOtA BARRETTII. 13 

Looking back at the results of my experiment with 
the eggs of D. barrettii, I seem first to have esta- 
blished the fact that it is not a Dianthxcia, although 
it certainly has some affinity to that genus, as shown 
in the solitary instance of one infant larva out of nine 
making its way into a seed-capsule and there sustain- 
ing itself on the unripe seeds ; and again, more par- 
ticularly, is this shown in the form of the pupa. Next, 
that from the behaviour of the other eight larvae they 
proved clearly enough that their normal habit is to 
enter the stems of the plant, and through them by 
degrees arrive at the root, where they feed and 
mature — a habit well confirmed by the structure and 
appearance of the larva itself, which, nob only when 
full fed, but even in its earlier age between the first 
and second moults, agreed so well with Gruenee's de- 
scription of that of Luperina luteago (vide ' Noc- 
tuelites,' tome i, p. 181), that although some dis- 
parity of size and colouring exists in the perfect 
insects, as most obligingly shown to me by Mr. Edwin 
Birchall, yet I am constrained by the evidence to 
believe D. barrettii to be an isolated and melanic 
variety of L. luteago* (W. B., July 7th, 1879; 
E.M.M., August, 1879, XVI, 52.) 



DlANTHJSOIA IRREGULARIS. 

PL LXXXVII, fig. 4. 

On the 13th of August, 1870, I received, through 
the kindness of the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, of Gruestling, 
near Hastings, seven larvae of this insect. Unfortu- 
nately, perhaps from having been too closely packed 
during the hot weather, four of them were dead on 
arrival ; another one appeared sickly, and soon died, 
but the remaining two seemed to be quite healthy. 

* When last in London, Dr. Staudinger stated to me that, in his 
opinion, D. barrettii is a form of L. luteago (R. McLachlan, E.M.M., 
XVI, 55, foot-note). 



14 DIANTHJIOlA IRREGULARIS. 

They were not full grown, but had, I think, assumed 
the markings of the adult larva; were of average 
thickness, and about three-quarters of an inch in 
length. The head is considerably smaller than the 
second segment, and emits a few short hairs. The 
body is nearly uniformly cylindrical, but tapering very 
slightly anteriorly; the segmental divisions tolerably 
conspicuous ; the skin smooth and slightly glossy ; 
the usual dots rather indistinct. The general colour 
is pale yellowish-brown, tinged with green ; the head 
wainscot-brown, sparingly dotted with black. The 
dorsal line is composed of a series of narrow V-shaped 
smoke-coloured marks, one on each segment, and the 
apex of each pointed posteriorly; these V- sna P e ^ 
marks are most conspicuous from the fifth to the 
ninth segments ; on the others they appear as an 
interrupted greyish line, bordered on each side with 
smoke-colour ; the subdorsal lines are inconspicuous, 
dull white, margined very narrowly with brown ; 
along the spiracles extends a smoke-coloured stripe, 
dark on the lower part, but shading gradually into the 
ground-colour above. The ground-colour between 
the dorsal and spiracular lines is faintly variegated 
with brown, and below the spiracles, which are black, 
is a yellowish-white stripe. The belly is semi-trans- 
lucent and shining, greyish tinged with green. 

It feeds in a state of nature on Silene otites, but 
mine did not refuse Lychnis flos-cuculi. In a few days 
they began to wander about the breeding-cage, to the 
sides of which they finally attached themselves, when 
a single ichneumon emerged from each. Each of 
these parasites spun its cocoon beside the dying larva ; 
these cocoons, when completed, were very curious, 
and almost exactly resembled dried husk-covered seeds 
of some plant. Mr. Bloomfield informs me that a 
large proportion of the larvaa of this insect are in- 
fested with this parasite. (Geo. T. Porritt, September 
2nd, 1870; Entom., October, 1870, V, 177.) 



POLIA CHI. 15 

POLIA CHI. 

Plate LXXXVIII, fig. 3. 

On September 14th, 1869, Mr. Longstaff, then at 
Forres, kindly sent me a few eggs laid by a female of 
this species ; these began to hatch on April 11th, 1870, 
and continued at the rate of about one or two per 
diem until the 22nd. The larvae, when young, fed 
chiefly on Bumex crispus, and occasionally on some 
other low plants ; they at that time were not particular 
in their diet, for they seemed to welcome any change 
given them ; but after two or three moults they began 
to show a decided preference for sallow and osier, 
and on this food, towards the last, they were entirely 
kept, until they became mature one after the other, 
from May 20th to June 5th ; the perfect insects 
appeared from August 10th to 21st. 

The egg of Polia chi is hemispherical in form, or 
rather elliptical at top and flattened beneath at its 
greatest diameter ; deeply ribbed and reticulated ; 
when first laid it is yellowish, and in a few days turns 
greyish-brown, and about a week before hatching a 
broad zone of flesh colour appears below, while the 
upper part is a rich crimson-brown ; at this time, in 
respect of colour, variations occur, — some of the eggs 
have a narrow zone of blackish at a distance of two- 
thirds from the base, while the top is irregularly 
blotched with this colour. 

The young larvae, when first hatched, were pale 
olive-greenish, the large head pale brownish with 
distinct black dots and hairs ; but they became in a 
couple of days rather bluish-green. By April 23rd 
the most forward had become half-an-inch in length, 
very slender, and of a full deep green colour, with 
the lines and also the dots paler green; by May 15th 
the biggest had grown to one inch in length, still 
slender in proportion, and rather less deep in colour, 
which, by the 19th, had changed to a yellow-green, 



16 POLIA CHI. 

and then the fine lines were whitish. By the 27th the 
larvae were in their last coats, and presented but little 
variation in details ; their attitudes were graceful 
amongst the twigs of sallow and willow, as they bent 
and elongated themselves when feeding near the 
extremities of the leaves. 

The full-grown larva is one and five-eighths of an 
inch in length, very slender in proportion, cylindrical, 
though tapering a little at each end, the head 
rounded, and the antennal papillge well developed, the 
segmental divisions very delicately defined, as well as 
the intermediate wrinkles, so that the skin appears 
very smooth and soft. The colour on the head and 
back is a delicate bluish-green, quite opaque on the 
back, the dorsal line very thin, a mere pale thread and 
edged with darker green than the ground-colour ; the 
subdorsal line is whitish, better defined, and also 
edged with darker, indeed this line on the thoracic 
segments is white ; beneath it, as far as the spiracles, 
the colour is a transparent yellowish, or else a full 
green, so clear as to show the branchial vessels 
through it ; this colour deepens gradually below till it 
terminates in a fine blackish -green line, along the 
lower edge of which are the white spiracles outlined 
with black ; a brilliant pure white stripe follows, very 
broad along the middle segments, and a little attenu- 
ated at each end, often extending along the side of 
the head towards the mouth, and ending behind at 
the extremity of the posterior leg ; all the legs and the 
belly are rather paler and more yellowish-green than 
the back ; after the thoracic segments the tubercular 
dots are ranged in threes on either side of the dorsal 
line ; they are paler than the ground, and sometimes 
ringed with a little darker colour. 

The variations seem to be in the depth of the 
general ground-colour, more or less blueness of the 
green, and the presence or absence of a small blackish 
oval ring with whitish centre, or false spiracle on the 
side of the third and fourth segments. 



POLIA CHI. 17 

When full-fed the larva makes a decided cocoon 
under the surface of the soil, of bits of earth some- 
what toughly spun together ; the pupa is nearly six- 
eighths of an inch long, smooth and regular in out- 
line, tapering gently to each end, the last segment of 
the abdomen terminating rather bluntly and furnished 
with a knob, from which is emitted a pair of very fine 
{quite bristle-like) hooked spines ; the colour of the 
pupa is reddish-brown, and the surface glossy. (W. 
B., March, 1873; E.M.M., May, 1873, IX, 290.) 



POLIA ELAVOC1NCTA. 

Plate LXXXVIII, fig. 4. 

On the 9th of July, 1873, I received from the 
Rev. B. Smith five larvse of this species reared from 
eggs and sleeved on apricot; they also like mint. 
Four of them were full grown, the other one half 
grown. The full-grown larva is an inch and three 
quarters in length, of moderate stoutness throughout, 
and cylindrical. The head full, and but little less 
than the second segment in width ; the segments 
very smooth and scarcely defined when stretched out, 
though on the larva turning itself round the skin 
folds itself afc some of the segmental divisions and 
then shows distinctly pale yellow in the folds. The 
ground-colour of one of these is yellowish-green, the 
others being bluish-green ; a slightly darker dorsal 
line having a line of minute yellowish dots or specks 
through the middle of it. The spiracular line is dark 
or blackish-green and is but the mere edging to the 
yellowish- white subspiracular stripe which melts away 
gradually below into the green of the belly. The 
spiracles are white, outlined with black. The ventral 
surface is green, same as the back, and has a central 
faint whitish stripe. The legs and ventral and anal 
legs are unfreckled, but all the rest of the green 
ground, excepting the head and a smooth velvety 

VOL. vi. 2 



18 FOLIA FLAVOCINCTA. 

plate on the second segment, is minutely freckled with 
atoms of whitish-yellow, a few more distinct than the 
rest marking the subdorsal line in an inconspicuous 
manner. 

The moths emerged on the 21st, 27th, and 28th of 
September, and the 1st of October, 1873. (W. B.; 
N.B., II, 23.) 



POLIA NIGROCINCTA. 

Plate LXXXVIII, fig. 5. 

On the 12th of July, 1876, Mr. Edwin Birchall, 
then at Douglas, Isle of Man, kindly sent me a full- 
grown larva of Polia nigrocincta, which I received on 
the 13th at 3 p.m., and immediately began to figure. 
Mr. Birchall informed me that it seemed to prefer 
lettuce to its natural food, and was found eating green 
seeds of dock, but seeing it had eaten out a flower of 
thrift or sea-pink (Statice armeria), I provided some 
for it, and it ate out several, more or less, during the 
ensuing night ; some Plantago maritima was also 
given, both leaves and seeds, but I am not sure that 
it ate any, and, indeed, the larva seemed to be almost 
or quite full fed, as it measured an inch and three- 
quarters in length. It is moderately stout in propor- 
tion and cylindrical, of nearly equal bulk throughout, 
save that the last segment tapers as usual, and it 
tapers also from the third segment to the head. The 
head itself is glossy, brownish-red ; all the rest of the 
body is soft and smooth, without gloss, the segments 
plump and well-defined. The colour of the body 
above is a peculiar brownish-red, and beneath, the 
belly and legs are much of this colour but weakened 
by a rather paler mixture of greyish-yellow, so that it is 
less red than the back. The somewhat puckered and 
inflated subspiracular stripe on the upper margin has 
the inconspicuous spiracles ; these are of the general 
ground-colour most finely outlined with blackish-grey ; 



POLIA NIGBOOINOTA. 19 

the stripe itself is paler than the belly, yet not so very 
much, being greyish-ochreous ; above the spiracles as 
far as the subdorsal region the ground is neutralised and 
made rather paler by something of the greyish-yellow 
in it ; the dorsal is not very distinct, being a thread of 
the ground between two freckly lines of dark greyish, 
the subdorsal very similar in colour but less distinct. 
Over all the ground of the body is a minute reticula- 
tion, roundish in character and greyish in colour. 
This is also on the under surface as well as the upper ; 
the abdominal legs are a little darker towards the feet ; 
the tubercular dots, of the ground-colour simply out- 
lined with darker gvej, are in threes each side of the 
back of each segment; the reticulation, which has 
much the effect of freckles, is rather more distinct 
near each end of a segment. 

On July 1 4th the larva, very well behaved and 
healthy, ate only a little of sea-pink; on the 15th it 
still ate but sparingly, and was evidently decreasing in 
length and bulk; on the 16th this continued, and it 
became active in roaming and rather irritable when 
touched; and by the 17th had retired beneath the 
soil. As the moth did not appear, I turned out the 
pot on the 6th of October, and. found a blackish-brown 
pupa with a cocoon of silk covered with grains of 
earth, nearly an inch long, of an oval shape, but the 
pupa itself was soft and dead. (W. B., October, 
1876; N.B., III, 110.) 



Dasypolia templi. 

Plate LXXXIX, figs. 1—5. 

This larva, discovered by Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, has, I 
am aware, been described by Mr. Newman, in the 
' Zoologist ' for 1863, p. 8788 ; yet, as it scarcely seems 
to be reckoned common at present, a few notes on its 
earlier stages which I have put together from the 



20 DASYPOLIA TEMPLI. 

observations of myself and my friends, may not be 
uninteresting. 

In the latter part of the year 1865, Mr. H. 
Doubleday obtained living impregnated female moths 
from Mr. Varley, of Huddersfield, and succeeded in 
keeping them alive through the winter; one even 
survived a journey to M. Guenee, and, as well as the 
two retained by Mr. Doubleday, deposited eggs about 
March 20th, 1866, which he distributed to his friends, 
Mr. Hellins and myself amongst them. They were 
laid on the under-sides of some leaves of Heracleum 
sfthondylium (then grown out to a foot in length), which 
were put in a box to induce them to commence laying. 
Perhaps in a state of nature, when the Heracleum 
leaves are backward, the females may deposit on the 
dry stems of last year's plants. 

The egg is not so flat as the usual Noctua shape, but 
stands up rather higher, is ribbed, at first yellowish in 
colour, afterwards turning flesh- colour, with a pinkish- 
brown spot on the top, and a ring rather above the 
middle ; finally turning blackish a day or two before 
the hatching of the larva. 

The larvae appeared about April 20th ; at first they 
were of a dingy olive colour, with black heads, rather 
longish-looking in shape. 

Mr. Jeffrey having made the entomological world 
acquainted with the food, we had all provided some 
Heracleum plants ready at hand in our gardens, and 
put out on them the larvae immediately upon their 
appearance ; nor had we to wait long in suspense as 
to their powers of eating. Some began by attacking 
the leaf itself and afterwards the stem ; others made 
at once for the stem, and commenced eating their way 
into the interior, and drinking the sap which flowed 
into their little tunnels ; from this point their habits 
as internal feeders made it difficult to watch their 
growth, but the following observations were made. 

It seemed that on reaching the centre of the stem 
they proceeded downwards, at first giving no sign of 



DASYPOLIA TEMPLI. 21 

their presence ; but at the end of a month — about May 
23rd — they had reached the bottom of the stems and 
the crown of the roots, and several of the plants began 
to show signs of decay. On the 4th of June one larva 
was extracted from near the bottom of a stem, and 
by that time measured about five-eighths of an inch. 
Being placed on another plant it made itself at home 
there also, and fed and grew till July 10th, when it 
was again examined, and being found then to measure 
one inch and three-eighths, was sent to me to be 
figured. 

It appeared very uncomfortable when taken out of 
its food-stem and exposed to light while being de- 
picted, and when replaced on the stem soon found its 
hole and disappeared within. 

I attempted to rear it on a cut stem of Heracleum 
inserted in a pot of moist earth, but after a few 
days it left the stem and died in a very flaccid condi- 
tion. 

Meanwhile the larvae which had been undisturbed 
seem to have eaten away and grown more rapidly, 
penetrating even into the main root of the plants, and 
causing them to wither. By July 1 0th Mr. Doubleday 
examined one larva which was nearly full-grown, and 
about this time probably most of them became restless 
and wandered off in search of fresh food, for about 
the 18th of the month neither Mr. Hellins nor I could 
find one left in any of our plants, and Mr. Doubleday 
had but few, remaining. 

However, on the 19th he most kindly sent me a 
large root with two larvae, then about one inch and 
five-eighths long, and on the 25th another — a fine 
fellow, two inches long, and apparently full-fed. 

Before describing the larva I may here at once say 
that neither of us succeeded in rearing an imago ; 
those larvae that did not run away became infested 
with parasites (Microg aster alvearius), and thus 
perished miserably. 

However, M. de Graslin (to whom Mr. Doubleday 



22 DASYFOLIA TEMPLI. 

had sent eggs) was more fortunate in France, and 
succeeded in rearing several fine moths. 

The shape of the larva (after it has attained some 
size) is moderately stout, cylindrical, tapering but 
little at either extremity, smooth and shining ; the 
folds and segmental divisions very slightly indented, 
a triangular inflation round the spiracles ; the tuber- 
cular warty spots slightly raised and shining, and all 
the legs well developed. 

In colour the half-grown larva is of a dull flesh tint, 
tinged with green beneath and at the segmental 
divisions, but much suffused with a deep dull pink on 
the back ; the warty spots blackish. When two-thirds 
grown it is wholly of a deep but dull flesh-colour, 
slightly suffused on the anterior segments with a 
dull red. 

^he full-grown larva is flesh-colour, having the dorsal 
pulsating vessel visible as a stripe of a darker tint of the 
same. The head is, as in the other stages of growth, 
brownish-red, and the mouth dark brown. The reddish 
shining plate on the back of the second segment is 
divided down the centre by a thin line of flesh-colour, 
and is thickly margined in front (where it is widest), and 
more delicately behind, with dark brown. On the anal 
segment there are four brownish-red plates, thus 
placed: on the anterior part above the fold of the anal flap 
a central semicircular plate margined with dark brown, 
and on each side of it at an obtuse angle a small narrow 
plate ; the fourth and largest plate is on the anal flap, 
and has its anterior edge undulating, and margined 
with dark brown, its anal extremity ending in two very 
small points. The anterior legs are brownish-red, and 
the pro-legs slightly tipped with brown ; the oval 
spiracles whitish, outlined with blackish. The brown 
tubercular spots generally round, but sometimes oval 
on the third and fourth segments ; on these segments 
also they are placed in a transverse row on the back, 
and end at the sides in a triangular group of three 
larger spots. Altogether there are twelve spots on 



DASYPOLIA TEMPLI. 23 

each of these thoracic segments. The other segments, 
to the twelfth inclusive, have the usual two pairs on 
the back of each, and the thirteenth one pair; the 
anterior larger than the posterior pair, and all gradu- 
ally diminishing in size from the fifth to the eleventh 
segment, but on the twelfth they become larger again, 
and are there transversely oval in shape. 

Each spiracle has a large round spot above and below 
it, another behind and a small one in front of it ; these 
two last-mentioned are sometimes both small, and 
sometimes one of them is absent ; but the two that 
are above and below the spiracles are larger than any 
on the back. 

The last larva (sent me on July 25th) I retained, 
and noticed that before August commenced it had 
entered the earth to change ; but at the end of August 
or beginning of September, instead of a moth, I ob- 
served a myriad of small winged creatures emerging, 
and, on digging, found a long, conical, whity-brown 
cocoon, which the little parasitic larvae had constructed 
over the remains of their victim. These, as mentioned 
above, were Microgaster alvearius, and it seems a mys- 
tery how this parasite can lay its eggs upon the larva 
of D. templi, boring as it does into the leaf-stalks or 
stems of Heracleum as soon as hatched, and the 
minute orifice it then makes being soon closed by the 
exudation of sap. Neither does it show itself again 
(unless the plant fails to supply sufficient food), but in 
nature gnaws a hole just below the surface of the 
earth for its escape. 

Mr. Doubleday most kindly procured for me two 
pupa-cases from which the moths had emerged, but 
which were in excellent condition, so that I could take 
a good figure of them. The pupa is barely an inch 
long, strong in texture, moderately stout and uniform 
in bulk, tapering gradually near the abdominal tip, 
which is terminated by a thick blunt spike ; the rings of 
the abdomen very plump and deeply divided ; the anal 
spike is black, all the rest of the surface purplish-brown, 



24 DASYPOLIA TEMPLI. 

but shining with a leaden hue, as though covered with 
plumbago. 

I understand M. de Graslin bred his moths in August, 
but in Yorkshire they are seldom found till the third 
week in September. (W. B., 1868; E.M.M., April, 
1868, IV, 251). 



Epunda lutulenta. 
Plate XC, fig. 1. 

On the 8th of October, 1868, Mr. Henry Terry, of 
St. Mary church, captured a female of this species, and 
having induced her to deposit her eggs in captivity, he 
kindly sent me a portion of them, retaining some for 
himself and sending others to the Rev. E. Horton. 

The egg is circular, a little depressed at the top, 
and flattened beneath, ribbed and beaded ; when first 
laid it is of a canary yellow, and changes in a few days 
to a pale pinkish grey-brown, having the top and a 
broad zone round the middle of the sides of a much 
darker tint of the same ; in about a month it changes 
to a purplish-grey tint, and just before hatching 
assumes the bloom-like appearance of a purple grape. 

This last change was simultaneously assumed by all 
the eggs in my possession on November 22nd, that is 
about six weeks after they had been laid, but from 
some reason or other unknown to me, no more than 
two larvae were hatched out; my friends, as will be 
seen below, were more fortunate. 

The young larva at first has a very dark purplish- 
brown head, the body pale dirty-greenish and trans- 
lucent ; the internal organs showing through the skin 
give the appearance of a broad dark grey stripe down 
the back ; there is a dark brown plate on the second 
and on the anal segments ; the tubercular dots dis- 
tinct, and blackish, each having a rather long dark 
brown hair. 

My young larvae fed freely on Poa annua, but the 



BPUNDA LUTULENTA. 25 

grass becoming infected with mildew, they both sud- 
denly died on the 14th January, 1869. I am, however, 
able to carry on their history, Mr. Terry having kindly 
forwarded me some of his batch on February 20th; these 
were then three-eighths of an inch long, of a full green 
on the back and sides, the ventral surface rather paler. 
The most noticeable feature at that time was the sub- 
spiracular stripe being whitish or greenish -white in 
some, yellowish or of a pale flesh tint in others ; and by 
the aid of a lens one could see that the dorsal line was of 
the ground-colour, finely outlined with darker green, 
and the subdorsal paler green also outlined with darker; 
also that the ground-colour of the back was delicately 
freckled over with darker green, the head and an un- 
freckled plate of green on the second segment, both 
paler. 

These individuals fed tolerably well for some days 
on mixed grasses sown in a pot, and they varied their 
food a little by feeding on some of a miscellaneous 
collection of plants that had sprung up with the grass, 
especially on Potentilla fragariastrum, leaving chick- 
weed and trefoil almost untouched ; however, they 
had never seemed healthy since their arrival, and they 
soon began to die off, the longest-lived going about 
the middle of March. 

Soon after this, I became aware that the Rev. E. 
Horton had been more successful, and though his 
stock of young larvae kept out of doors during the 
winter had been a temptation to robins as choice 
morsels of food not to be resisted, yet there remained 
one solitary individual uneaten, which he most kindly 
entrusted to my care, and on May 8th I had the satis- 
faction of figuring it. 

This larva was then one inch and one-eighth in 
length, and moderately stout, of the usual Noctua form; 
its colour a bright yellowish- green, finely freckled with 
paler green, the segmental folds showing yellow ; the 
dorsal stripe of darker green, the subdorsal stripes of 
very pale rather dull yellowish-green; the spiracles 



26 EPUNDA LUTULENTA. 

whitish placed on a thin dingy red line, and close 
beneath them a rather broad stripe tapering at each 
end, of greenish ochreous, edged above and below with 
whitish (the whitish edgings of this stripe appear to 
me to be the most distinctive mark of the species) ; the 
ventral surface and legs of the same colour as the back. 

On the 19th of May, Mr. H. Terry succeeded in 
finding a nearly full-grown larva on grass in its native 
haunts, and subsequently two or three others on 
flowers of wild mint and the leaves of Scabiosa 
arvensis ; these he also forwarded to me ; they were 
then an inch and a half in length, rather darker and 
less brilliant in colour than the one reared by Mr. 
Horton, but otherwise similar, even in the details, 
with the exception that the spiracles were pinkish-flesh 
colour, delicately edged with black, and each situated 
in a purplish-red crescentic blotch ; the plate on the 
second segment slightly tinged with the same colour, 
and in the middle of the subspiracular stripe there 
was a streak of dull pink beneath each spiracle. 

On June 19th, I received another larva from Dr. F. 
Buchanan White, who had found it feeding on heather 
in Inverness-shire ; this would not touch grass, but fed 
up on heather within a few days after I had it. 

This larva was of the same form and character as 
the foregoing, though the ground-colour was a rather 
bright olive-green, and the dorsal stripe becoming 
suddenly blackish on the fifth segment continues so to 
the twelfth, being intensely black just at the beginning 
of each of these segments ; on each of the same seg- 
ments there was a black streak anteriorly on the upper 
edge of the subdorsal stripe; there was also a fine 
black spiracular line, interrupted only by the spiracles 
themselves and at the segmental divisions. 

Although, as I said, this last-named Scottish larva 
refused grass, yet from what I could see of the others 
I am of opinion that this species is a veritable grass 
feeder, probably eating grass all through any mild 
weather that may occur in winter, and in spring 



EPUNDA LUTULENTA. 27 

probably attacking any low plants that may suit its 
taste. It seems also that the larvsB invariably both 
feed and rest on the blades of grass with their heads 
downwards. (W. B., January, 1870 ; E.M.M., March, 
1870, VI, 235.) 

Eggs were laid between the 18th and 22nd of 
September, 1883, by females taken in Darenth Wood, 
Kent, by Mr. B. A. Bower, from whom I received the 
eggs on the 28th of that month. 

The egg is pinkish-brown at the top with a whitish 
zone, that is to say the top of the egg in the centre is 
pinkish-brown speckled with darker brown and sur- 
rounded by a broad whitish ring having at its lower 
ragged edge a ring of dark brown, and beneath this 
the colour is light pinkish-brown. The general shape 
is rounded and a little flattened below, and the shell is 
ribbed and reticulated. On the 1st of October the 
dark parts of some of the eggs turned darker purplish- 
brown, which made the broad white ring more con- 
spicuous, but by the 12th this ring had gradually 
become of a drab colour, hardly noticeable from the 
general colour, which had changed to grey-brown on 
the rest of the shell. On the 21st of October I 
moistened with water some of the eggs, and next 
morning I found eight of them had hatched. (W. B., 
October, 1883 ; N. B., IV, 215.) 



Epunda nigra. 
Plate XC, fig. 2. 

Description of four varieties of the larva. — I am in- 
debted to the kindness of the Hev. John Hellins for 
many examples of the very beautiful larva of this 
species, collected in the spring of 1866 by Mr. Thomas 
Terry and others, found chiefly on Galium Wjollugo and 
other low plants, though in confinement they preferred 
hawthorn. 

When full-grown they attained from an inch and a 



28 EPUNDA NIGRA. 

half to an inch and three-quarters in length, and were 
cylindrical, of nearly uniform thickness, with the head 
rounded, and but little smaller than the second seg- 
ment, the anal segment tapering at the extremity. 

They were full-fed from the middle of May to the 
10th of June, and the moths emerged towards the end 
of October. 

There are several very distinct varieties, and others 
that may be subdivided into further variations, but it 
will be sufficient to give details of four, distinct in 
colour. 

First variety. — Ground-colour a brilliant pale yellow- 
green, sometimes a very bright grass-green ; others of 
a bright olive-green, deepest in tint at the extremities, 
and often suffused with pink anteriorly. 

The dorsal broad stripe in some being faintly 
blackish, in others reddish, but intensely black or 
red, forming a dark mark, just at the beginning of 
each segment; in others this dark spot is confluent 
with the two anterior tubercular large black dots, 
thus forming blunt arrow-head marks pointing for- 
wards. The subdorsal stripe of red or blackish is 
sometimes complete, but oftener interrupted in the 
middle of each segment; the skin-folds at the in- 
cisions are bright yellow. 

The spiracles in all varieties are white, placed in 
semicircular black marks, and immediately beneath 
them is a narrow stripe of pale sulphur-yellow or of 
greenish -yellow; belly and legs pale green, tipped 
with red at their extremities. The tubercular dots 
are sometimes absent, but when visible are black, and 
the anterior pair very much larger than the pair 
behind them. The head green, suffused with pink; 
a dull pinkish plate on the second segment. One 
olive-green larva had the plate dark red, and a large 
crimson spot on the top of each lobe of the head. 

Second variety. — Ground-colour cinnamon-brown ; 
a narrow pale greenish-yellow stripe beneath the 
spiracles ; the folds of skin at the segmental divisions 



EPUNDA NIGRA. 29 

greyish; dorsal stripe faintly indicated by a dusky 
spot at the beginning of each segment ; the subdorsal 
stripe more distinct and faintly blackish. 

Third variety. — Deep dingy crimson on the back 
and sides ; below the spiracles a greenish-yellow 
stripe; the belly and legs, with head and dull plate 
on second segment, rather paler than the back; a 
broad dorsal and narrow subdorsal stripe of faint 
blackish, but just at the beginning of each segment 
quite black. 

Fourth variety. — The whole of the back between 
the subdorsal lines a brilliant deep citron-yellow, the 
sides from the subdorsal to the line of spiracles of the 
same ground-colour, but almost entirely suffused with 
dark red; the head and thoracic segments, with the 
anal extremity, also suffused with red. The dorsal 
stripe composed of two red confluent lines forming a 
broad stripe, with blunt arrow-head shapes of red at 
the beginning and end of each segment, and anteriorly 
margined with short black streaks ; the tubercular 
dots black, the anterior pairs being much the largest ; 
subdorsal line black, and interrupted in the middle 
of each segment. 

Spiracles white in semilunar blotches of black, and 
edged below by a pale greenish-yellow stripe; belly 
greenish, with a large red blotch along the sides above 
the legs, the latter being orange-red. (W. B., 1867; 
E.M.M., September, 1867, IY, 87.) 

On the 13th of October, 1868, I received from Dr. 
F. B. White, then at Achilty, by Dingwall, Ross-shire, 
some eggs of this species. They were laid in a chip-box. 

The egg is rounded but flattened at the base, the 
top having a slight approach to being conical. It is 
numerously ribbed and beaded, in colour pinkish- 
brown and very shining. 

By the 15th of November they had become darker 
in colour, and began to hatch on the 21st, and the 
young larvae were all out on the 22nd. 

At first the young larvae were of a pale dirty green, 



80 EPTJNDA NIGRA. 

with brownish heads, and after their first moult 
became pale yellowish-green with brown heads ; tuber- 
cular dots dark brown, each having a fine hair. 

They soon began to show a decided partiality for 
grass over the various low plants supplied to them, 
and after their second moult they became rather pale 
and bright yellow-green, rather long in proportion to 
their thickness, and by the middle of December they 
retired beneath the axils of the stems of grass. From 
the 24th to the 30th of that month the grass was 
attacked with mould, which killed them off. (W. B., 
January, 1869 ; N.B., II, 144.) 

AGRIOPIS APRILINA. 

Plate XOI, fig. 2. 

On the 17th of November, 1883, Messrs. J. 
and W. Davis sent me a dozen eggs, laid together 
on chip side by side irregularly in a group of ten 
and another of two. The shape of the egg is round, 
slightly subcorneal or depressed dome figure, having 
about fifteen stout ribs of pale greenish-drab, the 
interspaces black and also the central top of the shell. 
(W. B., November, 1883 ; N.B., IV, 210.) 

Phlogophora metictjlosa. 
Plate XOI, fig. 3. 

On the 18th of September, 1881, after gathering 
food for other larvso, I found three Noctua eggs, two 
of them laid on a leaf of Stachys sylvatica, one being 
on the upper side and the other on the under side of 
the leaf, and the third egg on the upper side of another 
leaf of that plant. 

The egg is of a good size, hemispherical in shape, 
boldly ribbed from a circular ring or flattened boss 
at the top, with shorter ribs filling the spaces 
between the long ones, and plainly reticulated. The 



PHL0G0PH0RA METICULOSA. 31 

colour when found was light straw, and the egg was 
marked with two faint crenulated zones of pinkish, 
one below the other, the surface glistening. On the 
24th the colour of the eggs changed to a cloudy 
greyish tint, and on the 25th to a leaden hue, and in 
the afternoon they hatched. 

The young larvse marched about vigorously as 
semi-loopers with twelve legs ; though the two other 
anterior pairs of ventral legs are present, they are yet 
so small as only just to be detected. The colour of 
the larva, including the head, is lightish green, with a 
darker green internal vessel showing through the 
skin, which is dotted with black, each dot bearing a 
black short bristly hair. In four days the alimentary 
canal became very deep green in parts, though else- 
where the skin is translucent and almost colourless, 
and the head pale whity-brown. The larva when 
disturbed coils the head round over its back, and 
at this period eats small holes through the leaf of 
Stachys sylvatica. 

Their first moult was from October 3rd to 5th, when 
they were rather less translucent, and their bodies of 
a subdued dirty greenish tint but still shining a little, 
the black tubercular dots smaller in proportion and 
less noticeable, and the two anterior pairs of ventral 
legs more visible. By the 16th their bodies had become 
darker, of a semi-transparent green, with a decidedly 
pale dirty yellowish whitish opaque spiracular stripe, 
and the twelfth segment so rotund as to create my 
belief of their being Ph. meticulosa. On this day one 
was laid up, apparently for moulting, as its body seemed 
empty, being such an uniformly pale yellow-green 
colour; late in the evening the other two also were 
laid up, but their darker colouring not yet changed 
until the next day, when they also were of a light 
yellow-green colour. 

On the 21st of October all three had moulted the 
second time. I now identified them for certain as 
Phlogophora meticulosa. They were now of a darkish 



32 PHLOGOPHORA METICULOSA. 

velvety green, showing the characteristic whitish fine 
broken dorsal line which appears only just at the begin- 
ning and end of each segment. The small tubercular 
dots are whitish, and a pale whitish spiracular stripe 
attenuated at each end extends down the side of the 
anal legs. The subdorsal line is a rather darker green 
than that of the back, and has a line of whitish faint 
dots or freckles along its lower edge. The head is 
pale green. 

On the 2nd of November they laid up for moulting, 
and the third moult occurred on the 5th and 6th. 
They were now decidedly velvety-green, with whitish 
broken fine dorsal line and tubercular dots, and pale 
spiracular whitish green stripe edged above with dark 
green ; the subdorsal dotted line, faintly paler than 
the ground, is edged above with a dark green slanting 
line nearly as far as the second dot from the front 
of each segment. The head is light green, streaked 
down the middle of each lobe and reticulated with 
brownish-green ; length directly after moulting a little 
more than five-eighths of an inch, increased by five 
days' feeding to seven-eighths, and stout in proportion, 
and in seven days more they were fully an inch long. 

They moulted the fourth time on the 20th, 21st, and 
22nd, and were during the first day of a much darker 
velvety-green colour, the head streaked and reticulated 
with brown on the green ground. The very fine 
broken dorsal line shows quite white, and also the 
very minute tubercular dots surrounded partly with 
dark brownish-green. A dark green diamond-shape 
appears on each segment beyond the thoracic, and from 
their side angles a dark brownish-green streak proceeds 
obliquely forwards and slightly downwards through 
the next segment in front, fading away just before 
reaching the dark edge of * the pale spiracular stripe, 
which is palest down the side of the anal leg and finely 
edged above with dark green along the body. The head 
is brilliantly polished, semi-transparent green in colour, 
streaked down each lobe and reticulated with brown, 



PHLOGOPHORA METIOULOSA. 33 

affording great contrast of texture with the soft vel- 
vety skin of the body. 

They continued to feed well on Stachys until it failed 
on the 7th of December, when leaves of Rumex pulcher 
and R, crispus were substituted, and eaten by the larvae 
with avidity, and the fact of the fourth moult being 
their last was soon evident by their quickly attaining 
the length of one and three-quarter inches when 
stretched out, being asleep and hiding between the 
leaves during daylight and coming out to feed only at 
night; by the 15th they began to mature and were 
very fat, and the biggest laid up on the 23rd to purge 
itself of its grossness and fed no more, and becoming 
reduced in bulk entered the earth on the 27th, the 
spiracular stripe having faded almost entirely away. 
The remaining two larvae underwent similar fading and 
decrease of bulk, feeding however a few days longer, 
and they entered the earth respectively on the 30th 
and 31st of December. 

Recapitulation and Summary. 

Three larvae from eggs hatched September 25th. 

First moult, October 3rd to 5th = about 8 days. 

Second „ October 21st = „ 16 „ 

Third „ November 5th to 6th = ,, 16 „ 

Fourth „ November 20th, 21st, 22nd = „ 16 „ 

Spun up in earth, December 27th, 30th, 31st = „ 35 — 39 days. 

In a cocoon one and a quarter inches long by seven- 
eighths of an inch wide, of elliptical shape, a little 
below the surface, one having a leaf adhering, the par- 
ticles of earth not very strongly adhering to the cocoon, 
which is of weak texture. The pupa with two anal 
points surrounded at the base with a few curly-tipped 
bristles. (W. B., Jan., 1882 ; N.B., IV, 102.) 



VOL. VI. 



34 PHL0G0PHQRA EMPYREA. 

PHLOGOPHORA EMPYREA. 

Plate XCI, fig. 4. 

On the 24th of February, 1874, 1 received from Mrs. 
Hutchinson, then at Douglas, Isle of Man, four larvae, 
which she had reared from eggs sent to her by Mr. 
Jenner from Lewes, Sussex. 

The larvae on arrival were about five-eighths to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and feeding on Ranun- 
culus rep ens. They were all of a pale yellowish -green 
with one exception — a rather bluish-green, — but all 
rather darker green at each end. On the 21st of 
March they had grown to from one to one and one- 
eighth inch in length, and were very yellow-green, 
except just at each end, giving me the fear of their 
being sickly, though up to the present they fed, but 
were very sleepy and torpid, and now again seemed to 
prefer R. rep ens, rather neglecting R. Jicaria, both of 
which plants, were growing in their pot. 

The dorsal and subdorsal lines, mere threads, are 
rather whitish margined with darkish green, and above 
the spiracles is an exceedingly fine hair-like line of 
whitish ; the spiracles are very minute, of whitish 
faintly outlined with black ; the tubercular dots, small 
and whitish, are in threes on either side the back, and 
on the side, and one on the hair-like line a little behind 
each spiracle ; on each segment a very fine silky hair is 
emitted by each dot, and several from the head, which 
is smallish, pale green and shining. A smooth dull 
plate is on the second segment. The ground-colour 
of the body is very finely freckled with a deeper green ; 
the belly is the same as the back; all the legs were green, 
tipped with brown hooks. 

On the 24th of March I received from Mrs. Hutchin- 
son a dark brown example from the same brood, an inch 
and a quarter in length, which had originally been 
pale green. Its ground was a faintly greenish-tinged 



PHL0G0PH0RA BMPTREA. 35 

ochreous, but much freckled or reticulated with dark 
brown, especially along the sides ; the belly being 
a greenish-grey without freckles, and also the ventral 
and anterior legs, the head pale brown, faintly reti- 
culated with a little deeper brown, the velvety dark 
brown plate showing faintly the dorsal and subdorsal 
lines a little paler, and bearing two pale dots on 
each side the dorsal line. Beyond the thoracic seg- 
ments there is on each of the others a dorsal diamond 
composed of dark brown freckles thickly aggregated 
together, and on the edge of this dark brown diamond 
are the small white tubercular dots or trapezoidals, and 
the other dot on each side near the beginning of each 
segment, for they are in threes each side of the back, 
though the trapezoidals are most conspicuous, as they 
are either backed or ringed with black. The thoracic 
marks of dark brown are somewhat narrow and pear- 
shaped ; the subdorsal line is faintly visible, and 
though very fine is seen to be edged with fine freckled 
dark lines ; the space between this and the equally fine 
or finer spiracular line is very thickly freckled with dark 
brown. The spiracles are flesh-colour, delicately edged 
with black, and are accompanied by a white tubercular 
dot on each side and one above, in a blackish-brown 
spot ; below the spiracles the surface is thickly covered 
with dark brown freckles. The thoracic segments and 
the three posterior ones are much suffused with dark 
brown. 

It should be noted that each dorsal dark diamond 
has a paler less freckled spot within on either side the 
dorsal line. 

On the 1st of Apiril I noticed one of the green larvge 
resting belly uppermost on a rather open network of silk, 
which it had spun beneath the upper leaves of Ranun- 
culus repens; here it has remained for three days. 
(W. B., April, 1874; KB., II, 55.) 



36 APLEOTA HERBIDA. 



APLEOTA HERBrDA. 

Plate XCII, fig. 1. 

On the 6th of August, 1875, Mr. J. G. Ross kindly 
sent me five young larvge of this species feeding on 
dock ; they were about three-eighths of an inch long, of 
stoutish figure, and ate but sparingly for some time, 
and in a few days one of them died. Whereupon I 
changed their food to Plantago major, still giving 
dock with it a few times until their decided refusal to 
touch it while the plantain was present induced me 
to confine them entirely to this latter food, with the 
hope of feeding them up by the approach of winter. 
Their progress was very satisfactory. They were 
half -grown by the 12th of October, and on the 18 th 
of November one, full-grown, burrowed into the earth 
to spin up, another, full-grown, seemed ready to 
follow, and two others were not very far behind. 

When first they arrived they had most of their 
distinctive markings very plainly developed on a paler 
ochreous ground than it afterwards became, and their 
brown-coloured dorsal marks and freckles had some- 
thing of greenish in the brown, but as they grew they 
became more decidedly brown, the four varying but 
little in the depth of their colouring, and on attaining 
their half growth they were all very uniform in 
appearance. Their peculiar colouring reminded me 
of the snuff-box of a friend containing brown rappee 
of just their colour. At this stage one failed not to 
see three faintly paler lines beginning on the thoracic 
segments, but only the central or dorsal one continuing 
down the rest of the back, and intersected at the end 
of the twelfth segment by a transverse pale margin 
terminating abruptly, or rather obscure dorsal dia- 
mond and side wedges thus truncated ; on the other 
segments a dorsal complete diamond is just visible 
of brown freckles very little deeper in tint than the 
ground, which from their youth has been steadily 



APLECTA HERBIDA. 37 

increasing its depth ; along the side is a similar series 
of more elongate and narrower diamonds of freckles, 
followed below by a rather thin blackish line on which 
the white spiracles delicately edged with black are 
seen. Beneath the spiracles is the usual stripe of pale 
ochreous. On the head is a black brown streak down 
each lobe, and the spaces between the lines on the 
second segment are filled with rather darker brown 
than the rest of the back. The lateral breadth of the 
junction of the twelfth and thirteenth segments is the 
widest part of the larva ; otherwise, with the exception 
of the head and second segment being a little tapered, 
the rest of the body is cylindrical and of uniform sub- 
stance. 

These larvse fed up to full growth in November, two 
of them burrowing into the earth on the 17th, and the 
other two on the [no date given in MS.]. 

The full-grown larva and from its last moult is very 
much darker brown, indeed for a few days after this 
moult it is so dark a purplish-brown as to show but 
little more than the dorsal paler fine line, but with its 
growth by expansion of skin the slightly paler sub- 
dorsal fine line also appears, but in an interrupted 
manner. The ground-colour of the skin is now of a 
pinkish grey-brown or light purplish-brow 7 n ; this is also 
the ground-colour of the very shining head, which is 
broadly streaked with black down the front of each 
lobe and delicately reticulated at the sides, with a black 
triangle between the lobes. The second segment has 
a velvet-like blackish-brown patch on the back through 
which run the fine dorsal and subdorsal lines ; the 
last-mentioned is on the next four or five segments 
invisible from the dense mass of dark blackish purplish- 
brown freckles that hide the ground-colour, but this 
begins to appear on the other segments more and 
more distinctly towards the posterior end of the larva, 
and it is along those segments where the subdorsal 
line is best to be seen, and within this line on either 
side is a blackish purplish-brown wedge mark com- 



38 APLEOTA HEEBIPA. 

posed of closely aggregated freckles and uniting much 
with a central somewhat urn-shaped form of dark 
similar freckles. These dorsal markings leave the 
paler ground-colour both at the front and hind 
margin of each segment comparatively clear, so that 
each dark freckled shape assumes rather a squarish 
character on the eleventh and twelfth segments, 
an urn shape on the others ; a fine blackish spira- 
cular line not much interrupted, bears just above 
it, anteriorly, a blackish triangular blotch, and close 
to the white spiracle on the blackish line above 
mentioned which separates the dark freckly side 
from the rather paler ground. Colour of all beneath, 
including the belly and legs, of light pinkish-brown. 
The subspiracular stripe shows almost a whitish upper 
edge on the thoracic segments, but for the rest can 
only be distinguished by its inflation, there being no 
change of tint ; this is sparingly sprinkled with dark 
freckles, which are continued below and as far as the 
ventral legs ; these last are unfreckled ; a yellowish 
whitish streak runs down the front of the anal leg ; 
the belly is deepest in tint on the anterior segments, 
with a transverse series of dots on the fifth and sixth, 
besides freckles on all of these towards the head ; the 
ventral feet with brown hooks. The tubercular dots 
are blackish, raised but most minute, sometimes partly 
ringed with the paler skin but only to be noticed with 
a lens. 

This larva is when full-grown an inch and five- 
eighths long, and stout in proportion, the stoutest 
segments being the twelfth and eleventh ; from thence 
to the fourth the thickness is uniform and cylindrical ; 
the third tapers towards the head, which is very little 
retractile within the short second segment ; the seg- 
mental divisions and subdividing wrinkles on the back 
and dimples on the sides are well defined. The 
bristly hair from each tubercular dot is very fine and 
unnoticeable. 

The last larva lay some weeks in a torpid state, and 



APLECTA HERBIDA. 89 

its change to a pupa was very gradual, but completed 
by the 1st of February, 1876. Mrs. Hutchinson sent 
me an example of some she had reared chiefly on straw- 
berry leaves ; they were all in their last coats by the 17th 
of February, 1876, and similar to mine above described. 

This last pupa lay in a hollow of the earth, covered 
only by a leaf, and had the larval skin sticking to the 
tail and beneath the abdomen. It is a little more 
than three-quarters of an inch long by a quarter of an 
inch thick at the widest part, decidedly a stout pupa. 
The wing-covers rather short, otherwise much of the 
ordinary form, very dark purplish-brown and shining. 

On the 19th of June a crippled male A. herbida 
appeared from another fine pupa enclosed in a thin 
and extremely brittle cocoon of earth, though smooth 
inside yet with very little silk ; in this instance the 
old larval skin also adhered to the tail of the pupa, 
but when removed the tail was found to end with two 
curled-topped spines a little diverging; the wing- 
covers of ordinary length and development. (W. B., 
June, 1876; N.B., III, 54.) 



Apleota occulta. 

Plate XCII, fig. 2. 

For a complete set of figures of the larva, and the 
opportunity of studying the history of this species 
from the egg, I have been indebted to many kind 
friends, beginning with Dr. F. Buchanan White, who, 
on October 6th, 1868, sent me four young larvse swept 
from heather at Achilty, Ross-shire, which, though 
put on a growing plant, died in the following 
February. Next I received on May 1st, 1869, from 
Mrs. Hutchinson, a full-grown larva brought safely 
through the perils of hibernation, but which unfortu- 
nately died soon after, while in the process of changing 
to pupa In the same year, on the 18th of August, 
Mr. Longstaff, then staying at Cluny Hill in Moray- 



40 APLECTA OCCULTA. 

shire, forwarded me part of a batch of eggs laid 
altogether in a heap by a female moth he had im- 
prisoned for the purpose ; the eggs were laid two and 
even three deep in parts of the heap ; they hatched on 
the 27th and 28th of the month, and the larvae were 
reared, some to full growth, by the end of October, 
pupating in November, and others again at the end of 
January, 1870 ; the remainder of the brood continued 
to look well until the end of February, when a death 
or two occurred, and through March they died off 
rapidly, the last dying during the first week of April, 
when about one-third grown ; a fatality also attended 
the pupae, as no imago resulted from them. 

The attainment of the final metamorphosis, com- 
pleting the history of A. occulta, I owe to the kindness 
of Mr. J. B. Blackburn, who on his return from 
Rannoch presented me, on August 29th, 1874, with 
twenty young larvae, then between two and three 
weeks old, which he had reared from eggs laid by a 
very black female captured there. Some of these 
soon outstripped their companions in growth, the 
earliest changing to a pupa on September 22nd, and 
others at intervals up to December 4th; and from 
some of these four moths were bred on October 13th, 
November 23rd, December 7th and 22nd, respectively, 
four pupae still remaining. 

Of the larvae that continued to hibernate quite 
small up to the middle of March, 1875, I have been 
unable to save any ; for after moulting twice they 
seemed too weak to feed, and died mere empty skins, 
the last on the 6th of April about three-fourths grown. 

The food on which Mrs. Hutchinson reared her 
larva was heather, bramble, sallow, and Bumex crispus ; 
and to those reared from eggs I at first gave Poly- 
gonum aviculare, though their first meal was on the 
egg-shells,, which they totally devoured ; afterwards 
they had, besides the Polygonum, sallow and heather, 
birch and bramble, Vinca major and Bumex pulcher, 
and the last larvae from Mr. Blackburn were fed on 



APLBOTA OCCULTA. 41 

Polygonum, then on birch and sallow, with bilberry, 
afterwards dock and bramble, finally on dock, sallow 
buds and catkins. 

The egg of A. occulta is globular in shape, a little 
depressed on the summit, and rather flattened beneath ; 
the shell ribbed and finely reticulated, of a pale straw 
colour when first laid, afterwards becoming a pinkish- 
drab, and at last a dark lead colour. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a pellucid whitish- 
green, with minute black dots ; on the third day be- 
coming greener on the back, yellow on the sides, and 
head pale brown ; after moulting twice it is yellowish- 
grey on the back and belly, dark greyish-brown on the 
sides, the dorsal and subdorsal lines dirty whitish, the 
latter edged above with black near the end of each 
segment to halfway along the next ; the pale yellowish- 
white subspiracular stripe, so characteristic of this 
larva, now first appears with a black line above it. On 
becoming five-eighths of an inch long it is so dark as 
to appear almost black, though in reality the sides are 
darker than the back, especially towards the spiracles, 
where the blackest part being in contrast with the pale 
yellowish-white stripe below, makes it appear very 
brilliant ; the black subdorsal streaks have now be- 
come thickened into wedge-shapes, broadest at the 
twelfth segment, where their bases are only separated 
by the thin and much interrupted yellowish-grey dorsal 
line. At this stage in their captivity it was that the 
precocious individuals began rapidly to increase in 
size, and attain full growth in autumn, some of them 
keeping almost black to the last, others showing a 
mouse-coloured ground-tint, more or less, between the 
black markings ; in these lighter examples the black 
marks were greatly reduced, in two instances to the 
merest rudiments. 

The full-grown larva measures nearly two inches in 
length, is stout in proportion, cylindrical in figure, 
though tapering a little at the thoracic segments to the 
head, which is the smallest segment ; the thirteenth. 



42 APLECTA OCCULTA. 

sloping down from the back, tapers a little towards 
the end, which is rounded off. The general appear- 
ance is plump and full, though the segmental divisions 
are very well defined, and the two usual transverse 
wrinkles towards the end of each segment can, in their 
plumpest state, be generally seen. 

As regards colour, the head is usually brownish-grey, 
streaked on the front margin of each lobe, and reticu- 
lated at the sides, and freckled above the mouth, with 
blackish or with dark grey; the ground-colour of the 
body varies in individuals from a light mouse-colour 
to the deepest greyish-brown ; on the second segment 
is a semicircular smooth but dull plate of rich red- 
dish-brown, edged with black in front, through which 
run the beginnings of the usual lines, which are also 
continued faintly through the similar brown-coloured 
anal flap ; the dorsal fine line is in most cases pale 
yellow, sometimes, at the very last stage, seen quite 
uninterrupted, but often much obscured ; the yellow 
subdorsal line, a trifle thicker, runs its course in a fes- 
tooned manner, when visible, forming a series of 
curves, the end of each curve bearing the hinder tuber- 
cular yellow dot ; the dots, in threes on either side of 
the back of each segment, are always visible, and some- 
times dingy ochreous-yellow, but the subdorsal line 
is sometimes absent ; within the subdorsal line on the 
back of each segment, in front, is a more or less broad, 
black, velvety, blunt wedge-shaped mark, and the 
ground-colour between tnese marks often so thickly 
covered with blackish coarse freckles as to give a 
blackish appearance to the whole area of the back ; on 
the side, as far as the spiracles, the ground-colour is 
often quite as much obscured with black freckles, while 
in some examples this part is freckled equally with 
yellow and black ; bat it is always bounded below by 
a velvety-black fusiform or triangular mark bearing 
just within its lower edge the black spiracle, which, 
though not readily seen, may often be observed to be 
delicately margined with grey; immediately beneath 



APLEOTA OCCULTA. 43 

comes the broad stripe of conspicuously bright yellow- 
ish-white, narrower on the second segment, and widen- 
ing gradually to the fifth, suffused in the middle 
of each wth a tinge of orange or of pink, and having 
a chain-like series of blackish and grey freckles run- 
ning through its middle ; the belly and legs of the 
ground-colour are generally much paler than the back, 
but freckled with black at the sides, more sparingly 
towards the middle. 

Among the larvse sent me by Mr. Blackburn some 
beautiful varieties were developed. Directly after their 
last moult they seemed to be quite black and velvety, 
but with a brilliant subspiracular whitish stripe ; as the 
skin became more expanded by their increasing growth, 
the ground-colour began to appear by degrees on the 
back and sides, in the interstices of the black freckles, of 
a cool grey tinged with a rosy hue, and banded across 
the front of the segments with a suffusion of blackish- 
brown. Those that hibernated and moulted in the 
spring, and attained to half and three parts growth, 
were differently coloured from any of the others, for, 
although the details of markings were similar, the 
ground-colours were rich, warm, bronzy-browns. 

The pupa of A. occulta is nearly one inch in length, 
stout in proportion, of the usual Noctua form, the tail 
ending in two small points a little divergent ; the 
surface roughened by minute pits and striations, 
except at the divisions of the abdominal rings. In 
the newly-changed pupa these were flesh-colour, but 
after a few days became dark red, and soon after 
turned like the colour of the rest of the surface, a 
blackish-purple ; through these parts the wings and 
antennas cases still have the purple rather redder than 
the rest; the spiracles blackish. (W. B., 15th June, 
1875; E.M.M., August, 1875, XII, 66.) 



44 APLECTA TINOTA. 



APLECTA TINCTA. 

Plate XCII, fig. 4. 

On the 9th of September 1874, three larvae that 
had been reared from the egg by Mr. Charles J. Buck- 
master were sent to me with an account of their pre- 
vious history as follows : 

" The eggs, about twenty in number, were laid by 
two moths (taken at sugar at Rannoch) on the 2nd 
and 3rd of August. They agree with A. occulta in 
shape, sculpture, and markings, but differ in size, 
being much larger, and in their numbers being laid in 
loose batches of five or six together, several of them 
being deposited singly, and in what seems a curious 
fact, that unlike A. occulta and A. nebulosa, they are 
covered loosely with hairs ; this applies both to the 
small batches and to the single eggs. Out of the 
total number of twenty-three, seventeen hatched on 
the 12th and 13th of August; the rest did not change 
from their original whitish hue, and eventually shri- 
velled up. I have taken no description of the larva, 
which is now in its third moult, but find noted in my 
diary that on its first appearance it is much darker 
and larger than A. occulta at a similar period ; also 
that the tubercular dots are much more conspicuous. 
Its staple food has been Polygonum aviculare, accom- 
panied occasionally by birch and Plantago lanceolata, 
for neither of which last was much enthusiasm mani- 
fested." 

On arrival these larvae measured three-quarters of 
an inch, one of them a little more, in length, and were 
rather slender in proportion. Their ground-colour 
was light orange- brown, thickly sprinkled with freckles 
of whitish flesh-colour ; the dorsal marking is a fine 
double line of blackish enclosing a line of whitish 
broken up into dots of irregular lengths ; the sub- 
dorsal line is similar but less conspicuous from the 



APLEOTA TINOTA. 45 

confused mass of both blackish and pale freckles 
covering the sides as far as the spiracles, yet a zig- 
zag darker series can just be discerned ; the head is 
cinnamon-brown, streaked on each lobe and reticu- 
lated with dark brown ; the tubercular whitish dots 
on the back are margined with blackish-brown only on 
their side nearest the dorsal line, while the dot above 
each spiracle appears equally ringed with dark brown. 
Each dot bears a fine blackish short hair which has 
the appearance of a black centre ; the spiracles are 
small and flesh-colour outlined with black ; below 
them the sides are freckled with pale flesh-colour, the 
belly and legs of the ground-colour, unfreckled. In 
the largest of the three a faint appearance of dorsal 
diamonds was suggested by the aggregation of dark 
freckles about the dorsal line towards the end of each 
segment. 

On the 15th they had moulted, and by the 29th 
were an inch in length, their general appearance much 
as before, their skin having a very mottled look, the 
light warm-brown ground-colour being freckled both 
with flesh-colour and deeper brown, in addition to 
the blackish freckles about the dorsal whitish freckled 
line; the black rings to the dots and the sides 
present to view a still more mottled appearance. 

On the 18th of February, 1875, two of them were 
found dead and stiff, and on the 14th of March the 
last one was found dead, having some days previously 
eaten very sparingly of bramble and grass ; it had for 
some time been getting smaller. (W. B., March, 
1875; N.B., II, 121.) 



Aplecta advena. 

Plate XCII, fig. 5. 

At the beginning of July, 1865, Mr. Doubleday 
kindly sent me several young larvae of this species 



46 APLEOTA ADVENA. 

which had been reared from eggs. They were very 
lively creatures, greatly averse to light, and very 
active in crawling and burrowing under their food for 
shelter. They throve well on Polygonum aviculare, and 
by the 26th of July were three-quarters of an inch in 
length ; they were then pale greyish-ochreous on the 
back, brownish in the middle, through which ran a 
fine whitish dorsal line enclosed by two black outlines, 
which were united thrice across the white line within, 
at the beginning of each segment, suggestive of an 
irregular chain pattern. The four tubercular spots 
black and distinct. The sides, belly, and legs darker, 
of dull olive-brownish, a fine dirty- whitish longitudinal 
line above the legs, the subdorsal line darker brown, 
but interrupted near the middle of each segment by a 
short oblique streak of pale ochreous from the back, a 
fine, rather obscure darker brown line running mid- 
way along the side. Head ochreous. 

Early in September they had attained their full 
growth, being about one inch and five-eighths in length, 
rather thick and cylindrical, the head, second and 
anal segments but a trifle smaller. The head shining 
olive-brown ; on the second segment a blackish-grey 
plate, rounded behind, through which pass the pale 
dorsal and subdorsal lines. The ground-colour of 
the back and sides very pale ochreous ; a diamond- 
shape of dark grey mottled with olive on each segment, 
having on its edges the usual four tubercular dots, 
rather large, and whitish ringed with blackish -grey ; 
the dorsal line whitish edged with blackish-grey, but 
more or less suffused with dark grey and olive as it 
passes through the middle of the diamond-shapes, 
though distinct at the beginning of each segment. 
A very short blackish-grey linear mark on the anterior 
part of each segment on either side. Subdorsal line 
whitish, outlined with dark grey, and in its course 
sometimes touching each posterior pair of dorsal dots. 
The sides are mottled with dark grey and olive, 
having oblique streaks and a pale line of ochreous 



APLEOTA ADVENA. 47 

above the legs. Spiracles brownish-orange, edged 
with dark grey ; belly and legs pale greenish-brown. 

Some of the moths appeared late in autumn, and 
others in the following June. (W. B., July, 1866 ; 
E.M.M., June, 1867, IV, 14.) 



Hadena ADUSTA. 
Plate XCIII, fig. 1. 
The larvse of this species seem easy to rear as far 



as their full growth, on lettuce, knotgrass, hawthorn, 
and sallow ; about the end of September they become 
torpid, and hibernate until the warmth of spring 
awakens them, when they spin a slight cocoon under 
moss and dead leaves, the perfect insects appearing 
towards the end of June ; but it frequently happens 
that in confinement the larvas die during hibernation, 
as it is difficult to prevent their being attacked with 
mildew if kept moist, and, on the other hand, they die 
off if too dry. 

The full-grown larva is about an inch and a half to 
an inch and five-eighths in length, cylindrical, and of 
nearly uniform width, of a full green colour, with the 
whole upper surface of the back and sides as far as 
the spiracles freckled with a deep purplish-red, which 
down the middle of the back becomes aggregated in 
the form of diamonds, each occupying the area of a 
segment within the subdorsal lines; these last, and 
the spiracular line with the space between them, are 
freckled and streaked obliquely with the same red 
colour. The dorsal line is only indicated by a dusky 
spot at each segmental division ; the tubercular dots are 
blackish. The spiracles are white, edged with black ; 
the belly and legs of the green ground-colour. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Steele, of 
Congleton, for the subjoined varieties : 

Variety 1. — Ground-colour a brilliant yellow, the 



48 HADENA ADUSTA. 

upper surface as above mentioned, suffused with deep 
rose-pink ; the dorsal stripe composed of two darker 
pink lines, confluent at the beginning of each segment, 
forming a spot ; the subdorsal stripe bright yellow, 
only visible on the anterior halves of the segments ; 
the tubercular spots and two transverse streaks near 
the end of each segment also of the bright yellow 
ground-colour. 

Variety 2. — A dull pale yellowish-green, the dorsal 
stripe faintly outlined with orange-red, with a spot at 
the segmental divisions ; subdorsal line of same colour, 
but interrupted on the hinder half of each segment ; 
tubercular dots red, and situated on the faint reddish 
outlines of diamonds, which are very delicately 
freckled within ; spiracles as in the others, white 
ringed with black. (W. B., 1867 ; E.M.M., August, 
1867, IV, 62.) 



Hadena protea. 
Plate XCIII, fig. 2. 

On the 7th of November, 1882, I had a dozen eggs 
and one of H. protea from Messrs J. and W. Davis, of 
Dartford. They were laid on a piece of chip, side by 
side in an irregular group. 

The egg is of medium Noctua size, rounded above 
and a little depressed beneath, and yellowish when first 
laid, judging from an infertile egg amongst them. The 
thirteen fertile eggs when I received them were of a deep 
rich brown inclining to chocolate or russet-brown, 
having eight stout ribs, long and of a much paler tint 
of the same, almost meeting at the top and forming 
a star-like pattern, and between each of them low down 
on the side is a short rib of the same tint. During the 
winter they became rather dingier, and on the 1st of 
May of a drab colour, and on the 2nd a paler tint of 
drab, and by noon one hatched, three more by next 



HADBNA PROTEA. 49 

morning, one on the 4th, four on the morning of the 
5th, and one on the 7th. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a dingy opaque 
bluish-green, the head marked with dark brown on the 
crown of each lobe, and somewhat of a plate of 
brownish appears on the second segment. After 
moulting the larva is an active and robust little fellow 
of a deep dingy glossy green colour, with black 
shining head and narrow plate on the second segment. 
By the 22nd of May the larva had grown to be five 
lines long, the body tapering a little in front and 
rather more behind, being rather stout in the middle ; 
the head black and glossy, also a narrow plate across 
the middle of the second segment, a blackish-brown 
plate on the anal flap, the outside of the anal legs of 
the same dark colour, the anterior legs black ; the 
ground-colour of the body is a shining deep ochreous- 
green, with a faint yellow dorsal line, a fainter and 
much finer yellowish subdorsal, and a similar spiracular 
line ; the fringes of black hooks on the ventral feet are 
plainly visible. On the 25th it moulted, and on the 
27th was grown to nine lines in length and quite stout 
in proportion ; the ground-colour of the body was 
light yellowish-green, the dark plate on the second 
segment having disappeared ; a primrose-yellow dorsal 
narrow stripe runs thoughout to the end of the anal 
flap; there still can just be discerned the finest thread 
of the same pale yellow subdorsal line and also a 
spiracular line ; the head is now brownish-olive, and 
also the anterior legs. On the 30th it had moulted 
again and was thicker, the head lightish green and 
glossy, the body very pale yellowish-green, the dorsal 
line paler and distinct, the other fine lines can only 
be discerned with a lens. By the 2nd of June it had 
grown very much, and stretched itself when crawling 
to an inch and five lines. (W. B. ; May, 1883 ; N.B., 
IV, 181.) 



VOL. VI. 4 



50 HADENA DENTINA. 

HADENA DENTINA. 

Plate XCIII, fig. 4. 

On the 5th of July, 1876, Mr. William E. Jeffrey, 
of Ashford, Kent, sent me a single egg laid on a 
spikelet of a blossom of Aira flexuosa, which he found 
while examining the blossom. The egg is of the usual 
Noctua form, round, domed at the top, and flattened 
at the base on which it is laid, strongly ribbed and 
reticulated, of a light salmon colour, blotched on the 
summit and encircled with a zone near the top of 
purplish-pink, with the surface glistening. On the 
7th it began to change wholly of a pinkish-grey colour, 
and on the morning of the 8th it hatched. 

The young larva is grey, or rather greenish-grey, 
with the head and second segment ochreous-yellow, 
the body having conspicuous blackish tubercular dots 
and hairs. I placed it on some Air a flexuosa, but 
put with it a few leaves of Medicago sativa, and on 
this it certainly fed and continued to feed, and on 
the 15th had moulted and assumed a green coat, its 
tubercular blackish-brown dots conspicuous as before. 
By the 21st it had again moulted and was now 
pale whity-brown, a still paler dorsal line visible 
and the tubercular dots warty and brown. On the 
23rd its present dress became fully developed, when 
each of the tubercular dots was conspicuously sur- 
rounded with a paler ring or halo, and a pale 
almost whitish dorsal line thickened towards the end 
of each segment became visible, also a paler subdorsal 
line, rather less white than the dorsal, edged above 
with darker, and at a short distance followed by 
another such pale whitish line ; then follows a broad 
stripe of purplish-brown, darker than the back, on the 
lower edge of which are the spiracles, black with a 
pale centre; beneath is the pale flesh-coloured sub- 
spiracular stripe ; the belly and legs rather deeper 
in tint and more ochreous, the thoracic segments 



HADENA DENTINA. 51 

paler than the rest, and rather greenish -yellowish. The 
dorsal line passes through a pear-shaped rather deeper 
brown mark on each segment. On the 29th the larva 
lay up to moult. Food latterly lucerne and knot- 
grass. 

On the 30th of July it moulted a third time, and was 
now given knotgrass, Grepis, and Hieracium. Its 
colour now is a purplish-brown with whitish dorsal and 
subdorsal lines, the latter margined above at the be- 
ginning of each segment with a black oblong dash, the 
blackish-brown tubercular dots distinct, each with a 
plainly visible bristle. I was still unable to identify 
this larva and once more speculating as to the proba- 
bility of its being some Agrotis I had not known. 

The larva moulted again in the night of the 7th of 
August, and was now easy to identify by my figures 
of older larvae, being in its fourth coat very different in 
appearance. It was half an inch in length, stout in 
proportion, tapering but little in front, and rather 
more behind. In colour it was now very dingy ; the 
ground-colour of brownish-grey was on the back and 
sides very much obscured by dull blackish-grey dorsal 
broad diamond-shapes of close freckles, relieved by 
warty ground-coloured tubercular spots, each with a 
dark centre and bristle ; the dorsal line of brownish- 
grey ground-colour appears as a very interrupted line 
of faint freckles, enclosed just at the beginning only 
of a segment within two squarish black spots ; the 
subdorsal line is a thin line of grey freckles, margined 
above just at the beginning of a segment with a short 
thick oblong dash of velvety- black ; the side is closely 
freckled with dark blackish-grey like the back, re- 
lieved by a much-broken line of brownish ground- 
coloured freckles along the middle and by two tuber- 
cular warty spots ; spiracles black ; the subspiracular 
stripe is grey somewhat freckled with darker ; the 
belly rather paler than the back, and tinged with 
pinkish, but freckled like the back and sides ; the 
head rather pinkish-grey, streaked broadly down each 



52 HADENA DENTINA. 

lobe and coarsely reticulated with blackish ; anterior 
legs pinkish, the others pinkish-grey, rather shining, 
as also is the head, but for the rest there is no gloss, it 
having a dull blackish and almost rough appearance. 
The larva now fed slowly and liked garden lettuce 
when given to it, but fearing to scour it too much I 
continued to give it plantain, knotgrass, etc., but it 
ate very little indeed, and I saw on the 17th it had a 
conglomeration at its tail. It had grown much 
blacker lately, and seemed inclined to hibernate. On 
the 20th it died, and then when too late I regretted 
not having given it lettuce entirely. (W. B., August, 
1876 ; N.B., III, 107 and 131.) 



H ADEN A SUASA. 

Plate XCIV, fig. 2. 

I have been much indebted to the assiduity of Mr. 
Batty, of Sheffield, who kindly sent me, in July last, 
some larvae of this species in different stages of growth, 
reared from eggs on broad-leaved plantain ; they, 
however, seemed afterwards equally partial to Poly- 
gonum aviculare, and fed up rapidly, retaining their 
colours and markings throughout their growth. They 
were full-fed and had gone to earth by the 28th of July, 
and on the 23rd of August one moth emerged, greatly 
to my surprise, and is a dark smoky-brown specimen. 

The larvse are uniformly cylindrical until nearly 
full-grown, and then become a little tapering towards 
the head ; ground-colour green or yellowish- green, 
most minutely irrorated more or less with yellowish 
atoms ; the dorsal line rather indistinct, and slightly 
darker than the ground-colour ; the subdorsal line 
absent in some, but present in others as a fine black, 
rather oblique streak on each segment, terminating at 
the hindermost tubercular dot; the dots are black, 
and arranged on the back in the usual trapezoid form ; 
the spiracular line is composed of a black fusiform 



HADBNA SUASA. 53 

mark on each segment, with the white spiracles on 
their lower edges, brilliantly contrasted by a stripe of 
bright yellow below, along the side ; the belly and feet 
green ; the head and dull plate on second segment 
brownish. 

There is a variety in which the ground-colour is 
brown or olive-brown, the dorsal line strongly marked 
as a double dark brown line vanishing at the hind part 
of each segment in some, and in others running con- 
tinuously through a darkish brown triangle or diamond 
on each segment ; individuals occurring with either 
form. 

The subdorsal appears as a series of oblique dark 
brown streaks, each streak commencing a little on one 
side of the segment in advance, and abruptly termi- 
nated on the next by the hinder trapezoidal tubercular 
dot ; the dots are black, and placed on small yellowish 
specks. Along the side of each segment is a trian- 
gular shape of dark brown, their bases bounded by the 
black fusiform marks containing the white spiracles, 
and immediately followed by a bright yellow stripe, its 
lower edge gradually tinged with the brownish colour 
of the belly and legs. (W. B., August, 1866 ; E.M.M., 
November, 1866, III, 136.) 



Hadena thalassina. 
Plate XCIV, fig. 5. 

Early in July, 1865, Mr. Doubleday kindly sent me 
several examples of the larva of this species that had 
been reared from eggs, and were fed with Polygonum 
aviculare; there were several varieties in colour, but 
not a green one, as quoted from Freyer in Stainton's 
' Manual.' 

They were full-fed early in August, and the moths 
appeared from May 31st to June 4th, 1866, the next 
year ; they were remarkably fine specimens. 

The larv89 were about an inch and a quarter to an 



54 HADENA THALASSINA. 

inch and a half in length, cylindrical, and uniformly 
plump, the head being rather smaller than the second 
segment. The following are the three varieties 
amongst them. 

Variety 1. — Reddish-brown above as far as the 
spiracles ; a dull brown plate on the second segment, 
through which the dorsal and subdorsal lines are 
traced ; the dorsal line pale ochreous on the anterior 
segments, but on the others much suffused with the 
ground-colour, except at the segmental divisions, where 
it reappears as an ochreous spot. The subdorsal line 
ochreous, and much suffused with brown. On the 
fifth segment to the twelfth, inclusive, a dorsal 
diamond-shape of mottled brown, darker than the 
ground-colour, and on each side a wedge-shape of very 
dark brown pointing forwards, their broad ends a little 
distance from the segmental divisions, their sides 
edging the lower half of the diamonds and the sub- 
dorsal lines. The wedge marks gradually increase in 
size towards the twelfth segment, where they are 
largest and darkest, and most conspicuous, by the 
subdorsal line being there suddenly paler, and united 
by a transverse pale line at the base of the wedges. 
Spiracular line black, on which are the white spiracles, 
and running immediately beneath is a pale greyish 
stripe, its upper edge whitish, belly and legs brownish- 
grey, head pale brown. 

Variety 2.— A rich cinnamon-brown, mottled with 
ochreous above; belly and legs paler and greenish- 
ochreous ; dorsal and subdorsal lines paler than the 
ground-colour, but not very distinct, the diamond 
marks hardly visible; the blackish wedge marks 
strongly defined, but with the addition of two or three 
fine streaks of ground-colour cutting transversely 
through them all ; the tubercular dots black, in the 
following order : a transverse row of eight dots on 
the third and fourth segments, and on the fifth to the 
twelfth inclusive, the anterior dorsal pair distinct, the 
posterior pair hardly visible by being placed in the 



HADENA THALASSINA. 55 

broad ends of the wedges, a lateral anterior dot mid- 
way between the subdorsal and black spiracular line ; 
a dull brown plate on the second segment; head 
brownish-ochreous, with a blackish stripe on each lobe 
from the crown to the mouth. 

Variety 3. — A dull greyish-brown; the dorsal and 
subdorsal lines, and penultimate transverse mark, very 
little paler than the ground ; the tubercular dots black ; 
the wedge marks black, with a thin transverse line of 
ground-colour cutting them through towards the 
broad end. (W. B., 1867; B.M.M., August, 1867, 
IV, 63.) 



Hadena genista. 
Plate XCV, fig. 2. 

By the kindness of Mr. Doubleday, who liberally 
supplied me with part of a young brood reared from 
eggs, I have been able to take figures and notes of this 
species. 

They fed well on Alsine media and Polygonum persi- 
caria, and were one-third grown by July 14th, and by 
the 29th some had obtained their maximum size, and 
the others by August 7th, and had all retired below 
the earth by the 14th. The moths came forth from 
June 11th to 13th in the following year, 1866. 

When young the colours of these larvse were 
brighter and darker than they afterwards became, with 
distinct paler dorsal and subdorsal lines outlined 
with darker, and black spiracular lines ; otherwise 
their markings were similar to the following. 

When full-grown they were very plump creatures, 
varying from an inch and five-eighths to an inch and 
three-quarters in length, cylindrical, and tapering to- 
wards the head; the back and sides, as far as the 
row of spiracles, of very mottled dull brown, brownish- 
grey, dull greenish-grey, deep purplish-brown, or 
dirty olive-greenish, for all these tints were found in 



56 HADENA GENISTA. 

the brood. The dorsal and subdorsal lines outlined 
with darker brown, in many instances only visible 
on the anterior segments, and in others also at the 
segmental divisions. 

A series of darker brown diamond- and wedge- 
shaped marks down the middle of the back, on the fifth 
to the twelfth segments inclusive, viz., on each of those 
segments a diamond united to a wedge-shape on either 
side, the broad ends of the wedges extending to the end 
of the twelfth segment only, and to about one-third 
from the ends of the other segments, each wedge point- 
ing forwards and reaching a third into the segment 
in advance. The tubercular dots blackish, the upper 
pair placed on the edges of the diamonds, the lower 
pair on the broad ends of the wedges ; in the purplish- 
brown variety the dots and lines paler than the ground- 
colour, and in some instances not visible. 

The whitish spiracles edged with blackish are placed 
along the terminal line of the above brown colouring, 
and the remaining surface below, including the legs, is 
of a dirty whitish or pale drab colour, the legs tipped 
with brown. 

Head with two central black streaks across the 
face ; a dark brown plate on the second segment, some- 
times marked with one pair and in others two pairs of 
pale spots. (W. B., 1867; E.M.M., August. 1867, 
IV, 61.) 



Hadena rectilinea. 
Plate XOV, fig. 3. 

On the 23rd of September, 1864, Mr. Doubleday 
most kindly presented me with several nearly full- 
grown larvae of this species ; and subsequently Mr. N. 
Cooke obliged me with another variety, reared from 
the same batch of eggs, which he obtained from a 
female taken at Rannoch last summer. 

They continued to feed well as long as any sallow 



HADENA REOTILINEA. 57 

(the plant upon which they were feeding when I received 
them) could be procured for them ; and about the end 
of October one individual retired to a slight hollow on 
the surface of the earth, and spun itself over with a 
semi-transparent web, in which it is now (at the end 
of March, 1865) still coiled up and visible. 

One or two of the others died in February ; the rest 
are still attached to the top of their cage, and during 
the last few weeks have occasionally crawled about a 
little, but apparently without feeding on any of the 
various leaves and willow shoots supplied to them ; 
they have now lost much of their sleekness, and the 
segmental divisions appear contracted. The follow- 
ing is a description of their condition at the end of Sep- 
tember. 

Larva slightly tapering towards the head, with a 
transparent ridge or lump across the back of the 
twelfth segment. The dorsal and subdorsal lines 
grey, and very thin, edged with blackish ; and the inner 
edge of the subdorsal, at the front of each segment 
from the fourth, diverges, thus forming a dusky 
oblique streak on each side of the segment, pointing 
behind to the centre of the back on the segmental 
division. The colours of the back are of rich dark 
browns, others of chestnut browns, and others of 
ochreous and orange browns. On the back of each 
segment, from the fourth to the twelfth inclusive, are 
paler wedge-shaped streaks on each side, viz., a short 
one on each side anteriorly, pointing backwards, and 
a long one on each side posteriorly, pointing forwards, 
thus giving somewhat of a diamond form to the darkest 
brown of the back. Ordinary spots pale, each con- 
taining a central black dot, and placed more on the 
anterior portion of each segment than is usual with the 
Noctuina in general. A broad deep brown stripe along 
the sides, mottled and streaked, and slightly edged 
below with darker colour, and along this are placed 
the very small white spiracles, which are edged with 
blackish. Above the first is a rather broad lateral 



58 HADENA RECTILINEA. 

stripe, commencing next the head with a pale ochreous 
or cream colour, blending gradually at the fourth seg- 
ment into a grey-brown, and reappearing, similarly of 
the same tint, on the twelfth and thirteenth segments, 
and sides of the anal prolegs. 

Belly dusky-brown. Head blackish-brown and iri- 
descent. 

The sides of these velvety-looking creatures are 
clothed with an excessively fine and soft pubescence, 
which more or less includes the ventral prolegs, and 
assumes the most delicate tints of bright azure, accord- 
ing to the angle of reflected light in which they are 
seen. (W. B., March, 1865 ; E.M.M., June, 1865, 
II, 20.) 



Oloantha solidaginis. 

Plate XOV, fig. 5. 

For the opportunity of making acquaintance with 
this long-wanted larva I am indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. George Norman, of Forres, who sent me two 
eggs on the 25th of April last. These hatched in a 
day or two, and the newly-emerged larvse were of a 
dark slaty -green colour, with the head dark brown. By 
May 4th they had attained to a quarter of an inch in 
length, the ground-colour being purple, with the 
dorsal and subdorsal lines pale grey, the (rather broad) 
spiracular lines white, and the skin shining. By May 
24th half an inch had been reached, and the ground- 
colour had changed to a very dark chocolate -brown, 
with broad bright yellow spiracular stripes, the 
narrow dorsal line being then of a pale slaty-blue. 
Several days after this one of the larvse died ; the 
remaining one, however, fed on satisfactorily, and by 
June 4th its colour had again considerably changed, 
the ground being dark purplish-brown (darker on the 
subdorsal than the dorsal region, which had a faint 
pink tinge), the head dark brown, smooth and shining, 



CL0ANTHA SOLIDAGINIS. 59 

the dorsal stripe dark brown, with a distinct pale 
bluish-grey central line, but no perceptible subdorsal 
lines, only a broad, clear, pale yellow stripe along the 
spiracular region, the spiracles and trapezoidal dots 
grey, and the ventral surface, legs, and prolegs of a 
uniform dark purplish-brown. By the middle of June 
it was full-fed, and the adult larva may be described 
as follows : 

Length about an inch and a half, and of average 
bulk in proportion. Head globular, the same width 
as the second segment. Body cylindrical, and of 
nearly uniform width throughout, being attenuated 
very slightly towards the head. Skin smooth and 
soft. 

The ground-colour dark olive-brown, strongly tinged 
with purple. Head smooth and shining, pale brown ; 
the front of each lobe dark sienna-brown. Dorsal line 
dull slaty-blue, edged with smoke-colour ; no percep- 
tible subdorsal lines, but a broad, clear pale yellow 
stripe along the region of the spiracles, edged on the 
upper side with a very fine black line, on which the 
reddish-brown spiracles were placed. On the front of 
the second segment a conspicuous black mark, and 
a transverse black mark on the hinder part of the 
twelfth segment. Trapezoidal dots very distinct, pale 
yellow. Ventral surface purplish-brown, tinged in 
the centre with green, gradually becoming darker 
towards the pale spiracular band. Legs brown and 
shining. 

The larva, both in the adult and earlier stages, is 
very beautiful; the single one reared went down on 
June 19th. 

At first the larvae fed on whitethorn ; but, on being 
supplied with bilberry, evidently preferred that plant, 
which is, in all probability, the natural pabulum of 
the species. (Geo. T. Porritt, 10th August, 1872; 
E.M.M., September, 1872, IX, 92.) 



60 XYLINA RHIZOLITHA. 



Xylina RHTZOLITHA. 
Plate XO VI, fig. 3. 

On the 26th April, 1874, I had the pleasure to 
receive from Mr. J. E. Fletcher, of Worcester, a few- 
eggs of this species, which were laid on the 21st and 
22nd of the month ; and the larvse were hatched on 
the first two days of May. 

At first, and for some time, they continued to feed 
on the green cuticle of the tender young leaves of 
oak ; but, as they grew, began at length to eat little 
holes through them. 

The egg is small for the size of the moth, and in 
shape is spherical, but a little flattened ; it cannot 
strictly be called ribbed, but is covered with thirty- 
five to forty longitudinal rows of pits in such regular 
order that their sides form both shallow ribs and 
transverse reticulations ; in the centre of the upper 
surface is a button-like round spot ornamented with a 
star of nine pairs of short raised lines. The colour at 
first was almost white, the tinge of yellow being very 
slight; on the third day this turned to dull pink, 
afterwards blotched and streaked with pinkish-brown, 
at last becoming wholly brown. 

The young larva is whitish with a buff-coloured 
head, until after the first moult, when by aid of a lens 
opaque white dots and hairs could be discerned on it. 
When not quite three weeks old the larva is half an 
inch long, of a greenish-white colour, showing dis- 
tinctly the white raised dots and hairs. In four weeks 
it is three-quarters of an inch long and stout in pro- 
portion, of a rather pale bluish-green colour finely 
freckled with whitish, and having slight indications of 
dorsal and subdorsal lines ; by this time it feeds well, 
eating through the leaves from the edges. 

The full-grown larva measures one inch and a 
quarter in length, or a trifle more when stretched out 
in walking. It is of uniform stoutness, and cylin- 



XYLINA RHIZOLITHA. 61 

drical in figure, the head full and rounded, the hinder 
extremity also rounded, and but little tapered ; all the 
legs are moderately well developed, and terminated by 
sharp hooks. The ground-colour is a rather trans- 
parent pale bluish-green, appearing colder on the back 
and sides than it really is, from being thickly sprinkled 
over with minute opaque whitish freckles ; these, 
however, are but sparingly seen on the belly, which is 
of a rather yellower green ; the head is of a more tender 
green, with a patch of paler freckles on the side of 
each lobe ; on the back of the second segment are four 
whitish dots ; on the rest of the body the opaque 
whitish dorsal line is finely edged with darker green 
than the ground, but is so much interrupted as only to 
appear just at either end of each segment ; the sub- 
dorsal shows similarly as a broken whitish line, and 
less conspicuous, while the spiracular line is indicated 
still more faintly, existing as an interrupted series of 
larger whitish freckles than those which besprinkle 
the skin ; the wart-like tubercular dots are opaque 
whitish, each having round the base a narrow un- 
freckled ring of the semi-transparent green ground- 
colour, and each bearing a fine whitish hair ; the spi- 
racles white, delicately outlined with black ; the ter- 
minal hooks of the legs whity-brown. 

By June 3rd they had attained their greatest 
dimensions, and by the 7th had ceased to feed, and 
were become irritable, some having lost all their white 
markings and turned wholly green like the colour of the 
oak leaves, and by the evening they had retired into 
some light soil supplied to them, where they spun up 
in cocoons, and the moths appeared, from September 
28th to October 7th. 

I found the cocoons were about three inches below 
the surface of the soil, and they were composed chiefly 
of fibrous particles spun together, and smoothly lined 
with pale grey silk. The pupa itself is nearly five- 
eighths of an inch long, and stout in proportion, 
being a quarter of an inch in diameter ; the head and 



62 XTLINA RHIZOLITHA. 

thorax rounded, the wing-covers long, the tip of the 
abdomen rather bluntly rounded off, having at the 
end a small rough knob furnished with two small 
spikes curving a little outwards towards their ex- 
tremities ; it is of a mahogany-brown colour and very 
glossy. (W. B., 30th September, 1875; E.M.M., 
November, 1875, XII, 140.) 



Xylina semibrunnea. 
Plate XCVI, fig. 4. 

On the 3rd of May, 1870, Mrs. Hutchinson kindly 
sent me sixteen eggs laid by a female moth on ash- 
twigs. 

The egg is hemispherical, flattened beneath, rounded 
above, most minutely ribbed and reticulated, and of a 
cream colour. By the 12th of the month this colour 
began to change to grey. On the 17th a further 
supply of eggs was sent me by this lady ; they began 
to hatch on the 24th, and in the course of a few more 
days most of the young larvae were out of the shells 
and feeding on the young ash-leaves, soon becoming 
a quarter of an inch long, at which time they were of 
a pale yellowish watery green, very pellucid, but with 
a faint opaque yellowish -white dorsal line just visible; 
after moulting the subdorsal began in a few days to 
appear as a fine line, and by the 5th of June these 
lines had become more distinct. By the 12th the 
larvae were five-eighths of an inch in length, and the 
tubercular dots were then distinct. A few days more 
and the most forward individual was an inch long. 
Their progress was very satisfactory, for by the 
20th of June they had all attained their full growth, 
and by the 28th had retired to earth. The moths 
appeared from the 21st to the 27th of the September 
following. 

The full-grown larva measured an inch and a quarter 
to an inch and three-eighths in length, and was cylin- 



XYLINA SEMIBRUNNEA. 63 

drical, but tapering slightly from the fourth segment 
to the head, which is full and rounded. The last 
three segments taper also a little to the anal tip. The 
legs are well-developed, and the ventral and anal ones 
furnished with sharp hooks. It is of a delicate pale 
and bright yellow-green, the head rather pale bluish- 
green, faintly reticulated with darker ; the very dis- 
tinct rather broad dorsal stripe of pale whitish-yellow 
is a little attenuated or thinner towards the head and 
on the last segment ; the subdorsal line is well denned 
only on the second segment, as is also the beginning 
of another faint line below it ; those on the rest of 
the body are very thin and faint, composed of little 
short whitish streaks in a line with each other but 
much interrupted, the rest of the green ground-colour 
of the back, except the second segment and the anal 
flap, being very finely freckled with yellowish atoms. 
The tubercular dots are whitish-yellow, set in a ring 
of unfreckled ground-colour or green ; the green 
deepens a little into a softened line along the spiracles, 
which are oval and white, delicately outlined with 
black ; the spiracular broadish stripe is pale sulphur- 
yellow, and exteDds down the front of the anal legs; 
the legs and ventral surface are similar to the back in 
colour. 

A day or two before retiring to earth the larva 
becomes suffused with brown, deepening at the last 
to a purplish-brown. (W. B., September, 1870 ; 
N.B., II, 180.) 



Xylina conformis ( = furoifera). 

Plate XOVI, fig. 6. 

I have lately had the great gratification of rearing this 
rare British species from the egg, and have figured the 
larva at various periods of its growth. The eggs were 
obtained from moths captured in Wales by a kind 



64 XYLINA CONFOEMIS ( = FURCIFERA). 

friend (Mr. Evan John, of Llantrissant), who gene- 
rously shared his good luck with myself and others. 

Six moths were captured in October, 1870, and 
were kept together in confinement through the winter; 
and towards the end of February and the beginning 
of March, 1871, eggs were laid by one of the females, 
but the time of pairing was not observed. 

The larvae began to hatch on April 17th, the last of 
them appearing on the 30th. They fed on alder 
(Alnus glutinosa), and those that lived so loug were 
full-grown from the 11th to the 17th of June; but a 
great many died off after their last moult, and I 
fancied that, in the case of the larvse which I fed my- 
self, this mishap was caused by the alder leaves being 
smothered with the secretion of the aphides, which 
thickly swarmed on them. The pupa state lasted till 
August ; the first moth of which I have any record ap- 
pearing on the 7th of that month, and the last on the 
17th. 

The egg is small for the size of the moth, globular 
in shape, the shell thin, with about thirty fine ribs, and 
irregularly reticulated between them ; the colour at 
first a pale straw-yellow, afterwards a dingy pinkish, 
and lastly a dull purplish-brown, assimilating well with 
the rough specks on the alder bark. 

The larva escapes by an irregular hole in the side of 
the egg, and at first is of a pale drab tint, and semi- 
translucent, with the alimentary canal showing as an 
interna] green stripe. At first, and for three weeks of its 
life, it lives and feeds within the hollows between the 
ribs of the partially-expanded young alder leaves ; by 
degrees, as it feeds and grows, becoming more opaque, 
and greenish in tint. When about a fortnight old the 
colour is pellucid green, and distinct whitish longitu- 
dinal lines appear. In another week the colour is a 
full bright green, and the lines whitish-yellow. At 
the end of the month the length attained is fully half 
an inch; the colouring now is at its brightest, the 
ground being a rich velvety full green, and the lines 



XYLINA CONFORMIS ( = FURCIFERA). 65 

and tubercular dots bright sulphur-yellow. After 
this the growth is more rapid, and the colours become 
paler ; when about three-quarters of an inch long, 
the colour is olive-brown, and the lines and dots 
pale yellow, namely, a dorsal stripe of uniform 
width, a subdorsal stripe rather broader, a fine 
wavy line between this and a narrow subspiracular 
line; the tubercular dots arranged in threes on either 
side the dorsal stripe. At the end of about six or 
seven weeks the final moult occurs, when the larva is 
about an inch in length, and with this moult the 
ground-colour becomes olive-green, and there come 
some black markings, giving an effect very different 
from that of the former stages ; and I may observe 
that it was just at this time that the great mortality 
occurred, the larva?, which hitherto had seemed to be 
doing well, now dying off one after another. 

When full-grown, the length is an inch and a half, 
the figure rather stout in proportion, and cylindrical, 
except that the head is a trifle narrower than the 
second segment, which, with the third, also tapers 
slightly forwards, and that the thirteenth is tapered to 
the end ; the head is full and rounded at the sides ; the 
tubercular dots furnished with very small, fine hairs ; 
the skin smooth and velvety. The ground-colour is 
olive-brown with a slight trace of green in it, particu- 
larly on the back; the sides and belly rather paler, 
having somewhat of a pinkish tinge. The pale yellow 
dorsal stripe is interrupted by a deep, blackish, freckled 
patch of the ground-colour, just at the beginning of 
each segment, which, by its extension backwards on 
either side, forms the dark boundary of more than 
half of a blunt diamond-shape of blackish freckles, 
the area within showing the yellow dorsal stripe but 
faintly ; this dark freckling, with a deeper suffusion of 
ground-colour, forms a bar across the back from the 
hinder tubercular yellow dot on one side to that on 
the other ; the part behind remaining to complete this 
irregular diamond- shape is but faintly freckled, and 

VOL. vi. 5 



66 XYLINA CONFORMIS ( = ETJRCTFERA). 

there, at the end of the segment, the pale yellow 
dorsal stripe shows bright and unclouded ; on all the 
segments, from the hinder tubercular dot, runs a thick 
black streak, a little downwards and forwards into 
the subdorsal pale yellow stripe, which it extinguishes 
at that part nearly up to the segmental division, or 
in some instances opens a little at one or at each 
end, so as to allow the yellow stripe to appear. The 
side, for about halfway or more down, is rather paler 
than the back, then comes a very fine, rather wavy, 
yellowish line, broken a little in character by black 
atoms that make its edges appear ragged; the thin 
subspiracular line is similar at a little distance below, 
the interval being a little deeper in colour than the 
side, and much freckled with deeper olive-brown ; the 
belly and legs are rather paler and a little tinged with 
olive-pinkish, and bear some few freckles of yellow 
and olive, sprinkled just above the ventral legs ; these 
last are tipped with pinkish-brown ; the tubercular 
dots are all pale yellow, and distinct, and are deli- 
cately ringed with black, as are also the oval, dirty- 
whitish spiracles ; the head is olive-brown, freckled 
and reticulated with darker brown ; the slightly more 
shining second segment is, on the back, adorned with 
two pairs of yellow dots. 

When the larva ceases to feed, its habit is to retire 
into moss, or, if it does not find this, it will fold up a 
leaf, or else fasten a leaf loosely to the surface of the 
soil, and there spin an oval cocoon, three-quarters of 
an inch long, of whitish silk, close, but semi-transpa- 
rent, and closely adhering to the surrounding sub- 
stances. 

The pupa has no striking peculiarity, being thick in 
proportion, a little over five-eighths of an inch long ; 
the thorax, wing-, leg-, and antennaa-cases finely corru- 
gated, and the abdominal segments rather smooth, 
terminating in a hooked point, by which it is firmly 
attached to one end of the cocoon; its colour dark 
brown, the incisions of the segments brownish-red, 



XYLINA 00NF0RMIS ( = FURCIFERA). 67 

and the whole surface shining. (W. B., 11th Sep- 
tember, 1871; E.M.M., VIII, 114, October, 1871.) 



CuCULLIA VERBA SOI. 

Plate XCVII, fig. 1. 

The larva of G. verbasci is similar in form to that of 
G. scrojohularidB, but rather larger and thicker when 
full-grown. The segmental divisions and wrinkles are 
marked with black interrupted streaks ; the ground- 
colour is whitish, greenish-white, or bluish-green ; a 
transverse, equally broad band of yellow, extending to 
below the spiracles on either side, is seen on the middle 
of each segment. This character is alone sufficient for 
its identity ; and although this species varies much in 
colour and size of markings, yet the design remains 
in all. 

In rudimentary marked varieties, the transverse 
central yellow band is often interrupted slightly on the 
centre of the back, and completely, or partially so, at 
the sides ; the upper pair of dorsal black spots entire, 
and never united to those below. In richly marked 
individuals, the hinder pair of spots becomes elongated 
and they approach each other, with tails slightly turning 
upwards ; in others not so confluent, a small twin pair 
of dots is seen instead on the yellow band in the 
centre, midway between the large spots. The yellow 
transverse bands are largely developed on the thoracic 
segments ; the ordinary spots, dots, and streaks of 
black on the sides well developed. In some instances 
the ventral divisions are broadly black, and occasionally 
the whole surface of the belly is black. Perhaps hardly 
two larvae could be found exactly alike in the minutiae ; 
but the transverse band of yellow is the conclusive 
character, strengthened by the additional one of the 
black anterior dorsal spots never being united to the 
posterior pair. (W. B., 1867; E.M.M., October, 
1867, IV, 117.) 



68 CUCTJLLIA SOEOPHULART^l. 

CUCULLIA SOROPHULARIiE. 

Plate XCVII, fig. 2. 

In the following notes T hope to be of some service 
to those who, like myself, have entertained doubts 
concerning the real distinctness of this species and 
Cucullia verbasci, from inability to distinguish the 
larvae found feeding on Scrophularia aquatica and S. 
nodosa from others on Verbascum thapsus and V. nigrum. 
It is therefore with great pleasure that I acknow- 
ledge my indebtedness to Mr. Doubleday, by whose 
kindness I am at length made acquainted with the 
real 0. scrophularise, in four fine larvae he presented me 
with on the 4th and 8th of last July (1867), feeding on 
flowers and seed-vessels of Scrophularia nodosa, the 
sight of which immediately dispelled all my previous 
doubts, as it did also any existing in the minds of Mr. 
Hellins and Mr. D'Orville, through whose hands they 
passed to mine ; the latter gentleman having for years 
had great experience in, and devoted much attention 
to, the species of this particular genus in their larval 
state. 

The larva of G. scrophularise, when full-grown, is an 
inch and five-eighths in length, plump, and cylindrical ; 
the head rounded, and a trifle smaller than the second 
segment. Viewed sideways, it appears of uniform 
thickness ; but seen on the back, it tapers behind from 
the tenth to the anal segment. 

In looking on the back, its most valuable character, 
by which it can be instantly identified, is apparent in 
the bright yellow dorsal mark; for whether little or 
much intersected by black, it is distinctly seen to be 
a blunt-pointed triangle of yellow, close to the 
beginning of each segment, pointing forwards, its 
transverse base being longer than the sides, placed on 
rather less than the first half of each segment. The 
ground-colour in front of the two sides of the triangle, 
with belly and prolegs, is whitish -grey, or pale 



OUOULLIA SCKOPHULARIJE. 69 

bluish-grey, or greenish-white ; but the broad space 
behind the base of the triangle is a bright full green, 
varying individually towards bluish-green or grass- 
green. Thus it will be seen that there is a broad 
green band across the end of each segment. The 
black marks on the back may be regarded primarily as 
particular developments of the usual four spots, 
varying in each individual, and more or less like thick 
oval spots run together in blotchy marks ; that is to 
say, each anterior spot is confluent only with the pos- 
terior one below it, but does not unite transversely 
with the others. In one variety the black spots 
resemble tadpole forms united by the tails ; in another 
these tails are thickened equal to the spots, and appear 
as blotchy curves ; and in one variety these blotchy 
curves are so thick and confluent as to include some 
of the ordinary side spots, thus completely surround- 
ing two sides of the triangle with a blotchy black 
border. 

To conclude the description briefly, there is a yellow 
spot on the spiracular region of each segment except- 
ing the second ; the usual black spots laterally and on 
the prolegs ; occasionally some fine, short, transverse 
black streaks on the sides. The head bright ochreous 
yellow, mottled with red, and spotted with black; 
anterior legs reddish-yellow. (W. B., 1867 ; E.M.M., 
IV, 116, October, 1867.) 



CUCULLIA GNAPHALII. 

Plate XCVIII, fig. 2. 

One larva from Mrs. Tester, found in Tilgate 
Forest, arrived on the 26th of August, 1871. It was 
feeding on the small lanceolate leaves of Solidago 
virgaurea, the leaves just below the flowers. It does 
not appear to eat the flowers. I figured it the same 
day. It was an inch and three- eighths in length, of 
moderate stoutness, cylindrical, though tapering a 



70 CUCULLIA GNAPHALII. 

little in the last three segments to the extremity, 
the head rounded and scarcely less than the second 
segment. The skin of this larva is entirely without 
gloss. Its ground-colour is a rather deep green, 
inclining a little to olive-green, and thickly freckled 
with pale atoms of yellowish ; down the middle of the 
back, from immediately behind the head to the anal 
extremity, runs a dark purplish-brown stripe or band, 
widest along the middle segments, bounded by the 
subdorsal region ; this appears like colour or a stain 
over the green ground, for it and the pale freckles are 
faintly visible through it ; down the centre of this is 
a series of dorsal diamond and roundish oval shapes, 
two on each segment, the largest diamond or urn- 
shape in front, the oval one joining it behind, faintly 
deeper in tint, and finely outlined with black; an 
equally fine undulating black line runs on either side 
of them in such a manner as to form by its enclosure 
another series of diamonds along the segmental divi- 
sions, a trifle paler than the central or dorsal ones. 
The transversely oval tubercular warts stand on the 
boundary just within the dark area of purplish-brown. 
The subdorsal line is merely the freckled ground- 
colour defined by a freckled faint line of purplish- 
brown, and followed by two others, very faint, sinuous, 
and interrupted so as to be but little noticeable. The 
spiracles are of the green ground-colour, outlined 
with black, each situated in a purplish-brown blotch 
or slash placed obliquely along the side, and pointing 
upwards and forwards. Along the base of these runs 
a longitudinal thread of interrupted pale yellow freckles, 
becoming whitish as it approaches the head, on which 
it continues to the side of the mouth. The anterior 
legs, as well as the ventral and anal ones, are green. 
The ventral legs have each a spot of purplish -brown 
on the side. The back of the anal legs is of the 
same colour, and their basal hooks are brown. The 
head is green, with groups of very minute black dots, 
the ocelli black. The tubercular fine hairs are brown ; 



CUCULLIA GNAPHALII. 71 

on the head and thoracic segments they point for- 
wards, and on all the others backwards. The ventral 
surface is similar in colour to that of the sides, and 
freckled in the same way with pale yellowish, in a 
series of six longitudinal lines, rather thick and whitish 
in the central ones ; that is, there is a broad central 
one and one equally broad on each side of it, and two 
other slender lines on each side of these, so that there 
are seven in all. The larva has a rough mealy look, 
which assimilates well to the rough stem of the plant. 
As it matures, the dark stripe on the back becomes 
paler, as though the green and pale yellow freckles 
showed more plainly through it ; while the transverse 
subdividing wrinkles towards the segmental divisions 
become a little deeper and yellow when the larva 
bends its body round sideways. 

By the 1st of September it had attained an inch 
and a half in length, and the dark colouring on the 
back had become a little paler. (W. B., September, 
1871; N.B., I, 123.) 



CUCULLIA UMBRATICA. 

Plate XCYIII, fig. 5. 

To the kindness of the Rev. Hugh A. Stowell and 
Mr. Greening I am greatly indebted for examples of 
the larvae of this species, and for interesting details 
of their early history. The first-named gentleman 
captured a female at honeysuckle, which laid a large 
number of eggs on the 11th of July, 1866, and in five 
days they were hatched, and fed well on sow-thistles 
(Sonchus). 

Unlike the sun- loving habits of others of the genus, 
these larvae evinced a great aversion to light, and 
always hid themselves by day, reposing under the 
lower leaves of the sow-thistles, and at night ascending 
and feasting on the upper leaves and flowers 

Those reared from eggs were full-fed by the 25th 



72 CTJCULLIA UMBRATICA. 

of August, and the others by the 3rd of September, 
and were kept separately and well supplied with 
earth ; but instead of making subterranean cocoons, 
they spun silken threads amongst the flower-buds of 
the sow-thistles, attaching them to the tops of their 
cages, and spinning under the buds a few threads, 
forming a loose and open kind of hammock, in which 
they changed to pupae. 

One individual chose a leaf curved downwards and 
secured to the stem beneath by a few threads, amongst 
which it underwent its transformation. 

The pupas were smooth and reddish-brown, with 
the tips of the wing-cases projecting a little, and the 
anal point considerably. 

The larvae, when viewed from above, tapered but 
very little anteriorly or posteriorly, excepting the last 
segment only, which was rather elongated, and de- 
pressed at an obtuse angle with the other segments. 
The chief variation, individually, consisted of the more 
or less suffusion of black, and of the degree of dul- 
ness or brilliancy of the ground-colour. Amongst 
them three examples will amply suffice for description, 
the others being intermediate and connecting. 

Variety 1. — Ground-colour bright ochreous-yellow, 
with an elaborate blackish-brown raised and granu- 
lated arabesque pattern of curves and angles on the 
back ; the sides equally intricate, but linear and wavy 
in character. The dorsal stripe is represented by 
bare double triangular spaces of the ground-colour at 
the segmental divisions, and on the last segment as a 
central stripe. The subdorsal is indicated by a very 
thin undulating line of the ground-colour, and on the 
anal segment abruptly widening into a very broad 
stripe, tapering to a point at the extremity. The 
head dull black ; a dull blackish-brown plate on the 
second segment, with three small spots of the ground- 
colour on its front edge. Tubercular dots and spiracles 
black, also the anterior legs and prolegs ; the latter 
with a ring of white above their extremities. 



OUOULLIA UMBRATICA. 73 

Variety 2. — Ground-colour brilliant orange-ochre- 
ous, visible in spots at the segmental divisions along 
the centre of the back, and in narrow streaks along 
the subdorsal region, a much-interrupted line along 
the spiracles, and a row of spots and blotches on the 
side just above the legs (the larger blotches being 
above the anterior legs), and three broad stripes 
meeting at the end of the anal flap ; all the rest 
blackish. 

Variety 3. — Ground-colour dull brownish- ochreous, 
seen as dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral stripes, on the 
third and fourth segments with little interruptions, 
and on other segments only the faintest traces of 
them, excepting the anal, which is marked similarly 
to those previously described, and the dorsal stripe 
merely as a triangular spot at the end of the inter- 
mediate segments ; all the rest of the body dull 
brownish-black, and each spiracle placed in a swelling 
blotch of intense and rather shining black. (W. B., 
1867; E.M.M., February, 1867, III, 208.) 



Heliothis aemigeea. 

The eggs of this species are extremely small for 
the size of the insect, nearly round and slightly 
striated, of a pale yellowish-green, becoming a trifle 
darker before hatching, which takes place in five or 
six days. As the parent moth continues to deposit 
a few eggs each night for a period of fourteen days, 
and probably for a longer time when at liberty, those 
first deposited are hatched, and change skins once 
or twice before the last eggs are laid. Some of the 
first larvge feed up rapidly, and become imagos the 
same season ; but the bulk lie over in pupa3 till the 
following year. 

The young larvse are very sluggish, moving little, 
and eat only the lower surface of the leaf of the 



74 HELIOTHIS AKMIGEEA. 

garden geranium or other food-plant. For the first 
fortnight they content themselves with this mode 
of feeding; they then commence to eat holes quite 
through the leaves, and no sooner is the hole suffi- 
ciently large to admit the head than they slowly 
crawl through it, only to eat another, and again and 
again repeat the process, so that they soon make a 
plant look as if it had been riddled with shot. They 
also now commence to eat round holes into the succu- 
lent shoots and stems, burrowing quite into the plant, 
and evince a strong liking for the buds and flowers. 
They would soon prove most unwelcome guests to 
any lover of his bright-flowered geranium beds. An 
entomologist would most likely be glad to sacrifice 
Flora to his aurelian pet ; but a gardener would wage 
a war of extermination. 

When about half grown the larvae become terrible 
cannibals, eating their brothers or sisters with a 
zest and pertinacity quite horrible. They are mean 
and cowardly, generally seizing their weaker and 
more helpless brethren when about to cast their skins. 
As they became full-fed they appeared to hold each 
other in mortal fear, and, like most guilty people, lived 
in constant dread of being arrested for past offences, 
for when touched by another larva, ever so slightly, 
they would wriggle, twist, and throw themselves off 
the plant to escape a fate they had possibly inflicted 
on others. 

When full-grown and extended they are about an 
inch and a half long, of moderate thickness, slightly 
attenuated from the middle, both anteriorly and 
posteriorly ; the head is about the size of the anterior 
segment, shining brown, slightly mottled with darker 
shades ; on the second segment is a coriaceous 
shiny plate or skin, giving it the appearance of 
being wet ; the dorsal and medio-dorsal area is of a 
raw-sienna colour tinged with green, and pencilled in 
fine broken parallel lines of yellow and darker shades, 
varying a little in tone in different individuals, but 



HEL10THIS ABMIGBBA. 75 

to no very great extent ; there is a slight and inter- 
rupted dorsal line, formed by two fine oblong dark 
spots, edged with yellow on each segment, and a still 
more indistinct medio-dorsal line produced by four 
or six dark-coloured small warts, two or three on 
either side of each segment, and each emitting a short 
bristly hair ; the spiracular line is sharply defined, of a 
pale ochreous, lined above, first with a fine yellow 
and then a dark umber line, and below by a white 
line ; the legs and claspers are pale ochreous ; ventral 
surface a colourless grey, with three white lines. 

Tbe pupa is subterranean ; and the moth appears 
in August, September, and October. (W. H. Tug- 
well, October, 1877; Entomologist, November, 1877, 
X, 283.) 



Heliothis dipsacea. 
Plate XOIX, fig. 3. 

Greatly indebted for the help received from several 
good entomologists, I here return my thanks to them 
for all the opportunities they have so kindly afforded 
me for studying the larvae of this species, and, indeed, 
without repeated help, I should have chronicled 
nothing but failure ; what with cannibalism amongst 
the larvae themselves, ichneumons, and drying up of 
pupae, out of eleven examples received at various 
times I have reared but one moth, although I be- 
lieve I have still some pupae of 1873 alive. 

My first acquaintance with the larvae was in 
August, 1867, when one was found in Gloucester- 
shire, feeding on a blossom of purple clover, and sent 
me by the Rev. E. Hallett Todd; I then guessed it 
to be a Heliothis by its spiracles and texture of skin, 
but, as it eventually died, its portrait remained among 
the unknown, for future identification. 

On the 25th of August, 1870, Mr. Harwood sent 
me a similar larva, found in Norfolk, eating the seed- 



76 HELI0TH1S DIPSAOEA. 

capsules of Silene otites ; and on September 14th 
another arrived from Lord Walsingham, with a notifi- 
cation from him that he believed it to be H. dipsacea; 
this last was fed on sorrel for a few days, but did not 
thrive, until some green seed-pods of toadflax were sub- 
stituted, when a surprisiug improvement appeared in 
its condition, and it soon grew to maturity ; but both 
this and the other example died after spinning up for 
pupation. 

In August, 1873, my hopes were raised high by 
the acquisition of several larvse, found, and sent me 
from Essex, by Mr. Harwood; most of them he had 
taken on Ononis arvensis, and they were nearly full- 
fed, and soon retired into the sandy soil provided for 
them, and there some of them still remain. The 
last example I received, the one which has — by appear- 
ing in the perfect state — enabled me to identify all my 
previous figures, was found on Grepis virens in Nor- 
folk, and forwarded to me September 10th, 1873, by 
Mr. W. H. Cole ; from this the moth appeared on the 
10th of July, 1874. 

From observing the habits of all these examples, I 
conclude that the natural food of the larva, from near 
half-growth onwards to maturity, is confined chiefly 
to jloivers and unripe seeds of various species of Silene, 
Ononis, Trifolium, Grepis, Hieracium, Linaria, etc. 

The full-grown larva when at rest is about an inch 
and an eighth in length, and an inch and a quarter 
when stretched out ; of moderate stoutness, the body, 
thickest at the middle segments, tapers very little 
towards the head, and rather more towards the anal 
extremity, with a sudden slope down on the back 
from the middle of the twelfth segment, the thirteenth 
being rather elongated, and the anal legs extended 
behind it, the other segments plump and well-defined ; 
the head, which has rounded lobes, can be partly 
withdrawn into the second segment ; the tubercular 
dots small, each bearing a fine hair, and the skin is 
partially roughened, as hereafter described. 



HELIOTHIS DIPSACEA. 77 

The ground-colour is varied, straw-colour, light 
drab, greenish -ochreous, full green, brilliant yellowish- 
green, rather glaucous-green, olive-green, rose-pink, 
and deep purplish-brown having all occurred ; but in 
each individual the design has been the same in 
details as follows : — The head, often green but some- 
times pinkish, is freckled with black or brown on the 
crown of each lobe; the dorsal line is the finest 
thread of ground-colour enclosed by a pair of much 
darker lines, which commence on the third segment, 
and thicken gradually as they approach the middle of 
the body, from whence they by degrees narrow 
again towards the end of it ; on either side of the 
back run two pairs of longitudinal, rather meandering, 
lines, a little darker than the ground-colour ; the sub- 
dorsal stripe of uniform width is either white through- 
out, or white on the second segment and afterwards 
pale yellow, or becoming faintly tinged with ground- 
colour, or else greenish throughout; when viewed 
sideways, it is seen to rise upwards a little in its 
course along the twelfth segment, and to form an 
angle by its sudden return to its former direction on 
the side of the anal flap, where it ends in a point ; 
immediately beneath this conspicuous stripe is a 
broad longitudinal band of ground-colour greatly 
filled up with darker colour than that of the back, its 
upper edge the darkest ; next below comes the spira- 
cular line, either whitish, greenish, or pale yellow, 
and on it the circular white or pale ground-coloured 
spiracles, outlined with black, are placed ; then comes 
a stripe of ground-colour, or else ochreous or green, 
followed by a line of white, which runs down the front 
of the anal leg ; the belly is of the ground-colour, with 
a darker rather interrupted band above the legs, 
which are of the ground-colour, or else greenish. 
The texture of the skin in the darker lines and parts 
is rough, being composed of extremely short and 
minute bristly blackish points ; while in the intervals, 
and on all the pale stripes, it is smooth. 



78 HELIOTHIS DIPSAOEA. 

The pupa is five-eighths of an inch in length, of 
moderate bulk, the head and palpi rather sharply pro- 
duced, back of thorax swollen, wing-covers broad at 
the ends ; abdomen tapering, and ending in two 
longish anal points, the abdominal rings roughened 
on the middle ; the colour a pinkish red-brown ; but 
I see that the pupse that are standing over to the 
second year have become dark brown. The cocoon, 
composed of silk of the weakest texture, is very flaccid, 
but no doubt protects the pupa in the sandy soil. 
(W. B., March 12th, 1875; E.M.M., April, 1875, 
XI, 256.) 



Anarta melanopa. 
Plate 0, fig. 1. 

For eggs of this, and of the following species also, 
I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. T. Carring- 
ton, who sent them to me from Perthshire. 

I received the eggs on June 4th, 1875 ; the larvae 
hatched on the 10th ; they soon began to feed on 
tender leaves of Arbutus unedo, or Luzula pilosa, 
sallow, flowers of Helianthemum vulgare, and on Vacci- 
nium vitis-idsea, and by the 16th were growing and 
thriving well. By July 3rd they were three-quarters 
of an inch long, and feeding only on sallow, S alios 
capr&a, and 8. acuminata, having gradually deserted 
the other food-plants supplied to them; those that 
now survived, some two or three only, continued to 
feed till after the middle of the month, and about the 
end of the third week in July turned to pupse ; one of 
them, without having attempted a cocoon, became a 
bare pupa on the surface of the soil ; but as another 
entered the earth, and apparently formed a cocoon, 
we may suppose the latter would be the habit in a 
state of nature. 

The egg is almost globular, the shell delicate, 
shining, with rather more than fifty ribs, the trans- 



ANARTA MELANOPA. 79 

verse reticulation shallow, the top a little puckered; 
colour, wheu received, a delicate pink. 

The newly-hatched larva has sixteen legs, but the 
ventral pair on the seventh segment are not serviceable, 
and those on the eighth smaller than those on the 
ninth and tenth ; the usual warts small in size, and all 
placed on little eminences, and furnished with longish 
pale bristles ; the colour semi-translucent whitish, but 
the back purplish, and the head pale brown, the warts 
black. 

In about a week the legs on the eighth segment 
became nearly as much developed as those on the 
ninth and tenth, and those on the seventh increased 
in size; the whole body became greenish, the back 
brownish with pale central stripe, also a wider pale 
subdorsal stripe with a brownish thread through 
it. In about another fortnight the length attained 
was three-quarters of an inch, the figure of the usual 
Noctua type, tapering a little forwards from the fifth, 
and the thirteenth sloping rapidly ; the skin soft and 
velvety ; the ground-colour deep purplish-pink, dorsal 
line ochreous-brown boldly outlined with blackish, but 
interrupted on the fore-part of each segment by a red- 
dish-brown triangular mark ; this triangle is met on 
either side by a thick black wedge-shaped mark, below 
which again comes the continuous bright yellowish- 
white subdorsal line ; this line is thin on the thoracic 
segments, but beyond them widens in such a manner 
that the widest part of it on each segment is near the 
end of the above-mentioned black wedges, and the whole 
line is finely edged with black throughout ; the side is 
similar in colour to the back, but very much obscured 
by dark reddish-brown freckles, and with a short 
blackish streak slanting downwards on each segment ; 
the spiracles oval and blackish ; the subspiracular 
stripe yellowish white suffused beneath each spiracle 
with red, and delicately freckled with red along the 
middle; the belly and legs dark purplish-brown, the 
head also of this colour, with darker reticulations. 



80 ANARTA MELANOPA. 

After the final moult the length became about seven- 
eighths of an inch, with the colouring much as before, 
except that the subdorsal line had become thinner, 
only just visible on the thoracic segments, and on the 
others much attenuated at each end, but still con- 
tinuous. In about ten days from the final moult the 
full length was attained of somewhat over one inch 
and a quarter, the figure being slender for a Noctua ; 
the ventral legs now all of one size; the bulk uniform; 
in general effect the appearance was less dark than 
before, though the details still remained the same, 
only the pale subspiracular stripe had become still 
more obscured by red and brown freckles ; the tuber- 
cular dots of the back not noticeable, being situate 
within the black wedges ; the spiracles now ochreous- 
brown finely outlined with black, and each placed on 
an unfreckled spot of the paler ground-colour; the 
belly mulberry colour ; the whole surface velvety, 
except the head, which is hard and shining, and of a 
reddish-brown colour with darker reticulation, and a 
blackish streak down the front of each lobe. 

The pupa, which lies exposed, is rather more than 
half an inch in length, smooth and rounded in figure, 
with the abdomen tapering off rather quickly, and 
ending in a blunt spike; very glossy, and in colour 
black, the segmental divisions being at first reddish. 
(J. Hellins, February, 1876; E.M.M., June, 1876, 
XIII, 11.) 



Anarta cordigera. 
Plate C, fig. 2. 

The eggs which I received from Mr. J. T. Carrington 
on June 8th, 1875, were laid on June 1st, and the 
larvaB hatched on the 12th; meanwhile I had received 
from Mr. Buckler another supply of eggs, or rather 
newly -hatched larvae, on the 10th, which had been 
sent him by Dr. F. Buchanan White. The young 



ANAETA COEDIGEEA. 81 

larvae ate at first Luzula jpilosa, Arbutus unedo, and 
Arbutus uva-ursi, the last kindly supplied by Dr. 
White; but after a time they were quite content with 
young leaves of A. unedo, and preferred them to those 
of A. uva-ursi, although I had been at the trouble of 
obtaining a fine growing plant from Messrs. Veitch, 
of Chelsea, in order to give them fresh tender 
leaves. 

Both broods of larvae grew and kept pace with those 
of A. melanopa, by July 3rd having become nearly 
three-quarters of an inch long, and by the 16th being 
full-fed, and retiring to earth about the 23rd. 

The egg is about the size of that of A. melanopa, 
but not so globular ; with about forty shallow ribs, 
and with faint transverse reticulations ; the shell 
shining ; the colour when laid cream-white, in a week 
becoming whitish with a faint reddish irregular ring 
and blotches. 

The newly-hatched larva is of the same size as that 
of A. melanoma, but darker in colour, being pale dull 
purplish, with the head, collar, and anal plate shining 
blackish, the warts also blackish, distinct, and fur- 
nished with very short bristles, the ventral legs on the 
seventh and eighth segments small, and not usable. 
In about a week the colour changed to pale greenish, 
except the back, which was brownish, with pale dorsal 
and subdorsal stripes, the head and warts still remain- 
ing blackish. 

At the end of the third week from hatching the 
larvae were nearly three-quarters of an inch long, and 
all the ventral legs were used, those on the seventh 
and eighth segments, however, being still smaller than 
the others. The colour was now deep purplish-brown 
both above and below, with a white dorsal line and a 
faint indication of a subdorsal line, but only on the 
second and thirteenth; the subspiracular stripe pale 
primrose-yellow ; the whole skin soft and velvety ; 
the head horny. In another week, and after the final 
moult, the length was nearly an inch ; the purple- 

VOL. vi. 6 



82 ANAETA CORDIGERA. 

brown of the back now obscured by black, and on the 
sides freckled both with black and with paler brown ; 
the dorsal whitish line thinner than before, and some- 
times interrupted at the divisions by the ground-colour, 
the subdorsal, though faint, now showing slightly all 
its course ; the subspiracular stripe becomes brown- 
ish-ochreous and freckled with crimson-brown, the 
belly and legs dark purplish-brown ; the head dark 
purplish-brown, with a blackish blotch on the corner 
of each lobe, hard and shining. At the end of the 
fifth week from hatching the full length was attained 
of one inch and three-sixteenths ; the figure slender 
for a Noctua ; all the ventral legs about the same size ; 
in the colouring there were two varieties at least, and 
perhaps in a larger number of examples more variation 
might have been observed ; the lighter variety had 
the ground-colour crimson-brown, all the details much 
as before, both the pale and the black freckles being 
more distinct ; the darker variety became almost black, 
and had only a trace on the end of each segment of 
the dorsal and subdorsal lines ; the subspiracular 
stripe was brown and tinged with deep lurid red ; the 
belly sooty-brown. 

All the survivors of both broods, some four or five 
in number, spun up in long rounded earthen cocoons 
on the surface of the soil. 

As a postscript to this and to the account of A. mela- 
nopa, I would say that from the information I have re- 
ceived from my friends, the natural food of A. cordigera 
must be Arbutus uva-ursi, and that of A. m,elano]oa pro- 
bably Menziesia cserulea, but of this I am not sure ; of 
course Arbutus unedo and Salix cajprsea are only sub- 
stitute foods. (John Hellins, February, 1876 ; E.M.M., 
June, 1876, XIII, 12.) 



HELIODES ARBUTI. 83 

HELIODES ARBUTI. 

Plate C, fig. 4. 

It is with extreme gratification that I now find 
myself giving the history, from the egg, of this little 
sun-loviog species, which I owe to the most kind and 
persevering help I had the pleasure to receive from 
Mr. H. T. Stainton in 1880, and again in 1881. 

In the former year, on the 23rd of May, I received 
a cluster of about eight eggs, resulting from a mori- 
bund female after being a short time in a killing bottle 
of poison, but long enough, as it proved, to have de- 
stroyed their vitality. 

On the 26th of the same month I was elated on 
receiving alive five captured examples of the moths ; 
as two of them were females I imprisoned them and 
the most lively male together in a pot containing 
sprays of Gerastium glomeratum and 0. vulgatum, 
covered with leno, whereon they were occasionally fed 
with a drop of sugar and water, which the male 
imbibed plentifully, the females less often, and one of 
these soon left the leno and alighted on the Gerastium, 
and sat there with extended antennae and wings gently 
vibrating as though intending to lay. The next day 
was dull and cloudy, and the two on the leno only 
flew around whenever a chance ray of sun gleamed on 
them, but late in the afternoon they made me hopeful 
of success when I saw they had paired about halfway 
down on the side of the pot, where they remained five 
hours and a half together ; they were fed for five more 
days and fresh Gerastium added, but in vaiu, as they 
died without either female depositing even a single 

egg- 
As a forlorn hope, I squeezed from the abdomen of 

the gravid and dead female several eggs ; and after a 

few days I fancied one of them at least was changing 

colour, and in the afternoon of June 7th this one 

really began to hatch, and while noting down its 



84 HELI0DES ARBUTI. 

details, which were well exposed to view, I could see 
the little larva making continual efforts to free its 
hindermost segment from a part of the shell adhering 
to the other eggs, but it was unable to extricate itself, 
and by next morning had perished. 

With the return of May in 1881 I felt greatly en- 
couraged to persevere, on finding that my previous 
failure had by no means diminished, but perhaps in- 
creased, the kindly interest taken by Mr. Stainton in 
the elucidation of the early stages of this insect, and he 
lost no time in giving me the result of his observa- 
tions, both in literature and in the field ; so that I 
soon learned what flowers were most visited by it, — 
for, as may well be supposed, some doubt of the food- 
plant had naturally by this time occurred to me, — and 
that Oerastium arvense was the plant assigned to H. 
arbuti by Carl von Tischer, who communicated this 
to Treitschke and afterwards to Freyer, as quoted by 
both, whom Guenee appears to have followed ; I also 
learned that G. arvense does not grow in the district 
where H. arbuti is found flying by Mr. Stainton, but 
that G. vulgatum does, plentifully, of which he kindly 
sent me a few plants for potting on the 21st, and on 
the next day as many as twenty specimens of H. arbuti, 
all in lively condition. 

The moths were distributed in three pots of grow- 
ing plants, protected with glass cylinders and leno 
covers ; two of the pots contained the 0. vulgatum, 
and the third pot some different plants of the Caryo- 
phyllese, besides in each some tufts of Bellis perennis, 
whose blossoms constantly attracted and helped to 
nourish them, as did also sugar and water frequentty 
supplied; in the evening of the 23rd I saw one egg 
had been laid on the glass cylinder, and on the 25th 
another egg on the opposite side of the same glass 
enclosing some of the Oerastium. 

On the 1st of June a friend brought me some plants 
of G. arvense in full bloom, kindly obtained near 
Lewes, as the plant does not occur in this locality, 



HELIODES ARBUTI. 85 

and these were potted and protected with glass just 
in time for a second consignment of five living H. 
arbuti from Mr. Stainton, who yet in a day or two 
supplemented them with four more ; an egg was very 
soon laid on a leaf of 0. arvense, and on the 7th I saw 
another egg was laid on the base of the calyx near 
the stalk of an expanded flower of one of the same 
plants ; these two eggs I cut off and sent to Mr. Hellins 
for his examination ; who had an accident which settled 
the first egg, and the second he pronounced to be 
addled. 

Meantime I had often looked in one pot of G. vul- 
gatum wherein no egg could ever be detected while 
the moths were alive nor after the cylinder was taken 
away ; yet on the 8th of June I was greatly delighted 
to see a larva quietly sitting on a stem, in an attitude 
rather suggestive of the letter S. After recovering 
equanimity from such an agreeable surprise, I became 
aware of a hole in the side of the seed capsule a little 
above it, and soon detected a second larva sitting 
quietly in the same manner, and then a third larva 
partly protruding from one of two contiguous cap- 
sules ; and next, the hole in another capsule from 
whence the second larva had eaten its way out, like 
the first evidently soon to moult, a process they both 
accomplished in the evening of the 10th, and hence- 
forward lived outside more or less exposed, feeding 
well on both flowers and unripe seeds ; on the 13th 
I saw they were again waiting for another moult, 
which occurred a little before midnight of the 14th 
with one, and with the other at some early hour in 
the morn ensuing ; they soon resumed feeding, and 
had grown decidedly by evening, and continued to eat 
quite voraciously, but less of flowers and more of 
seeds, eating out a number of capsules within a few 
hours, in this reminding me of the Dianthdecide ; they 
were fall-fed by the 18th of June, when they left 
their food and lay up motionless for a day and night, 
as though to purge themselves of their grossness 



86 HELI0DES ARBUTI. 

while secreting the needful silk before entering the 
earth for pupation. 

These larvae conveyed an instructive lesson in show- 
ing why I failed the year before to get any eggs laid 
on sprays of the food-plant when gathered, also on this 
occasion the wonderful instinct and prevision, I may 
say reasoning power, of the parent moth or moths, which 
refused to lay more than three eggs on the few plants 
confined with her or with them — for there remains the 
possibility that perhaps three females were confined, 
and each laid one egg, knowing there would be barely 
enough sustenance for a single larva. But, however 
this may have been, it would seem that in nature the 
female would deposit her eggs singly, probably in 
the corolla or on the calyx of a flower, just here 
and there one, in proportion to the abundance of the 
plant. 

I know not if this larva had been seen by any 
human eye since the time of Carl von Tischer, but the 
time for it to be found in this country had come, for 
on the 17th of June I received a further very kind 
attention from Mr. Stainton in the arrival of a full- 
grown larva of H. arbuti, which he had gathered by 
chance while getting some 0. vulgatum for a cole- 
opteron in the field where H. arbuti flew ; this larva 
in no way varied from those I had reared, and proved 
to be only twenty -four hours later in maturing. Curi- 
ously enough, this incident was repeated similarly by 
the Rev. John Hellins, to whom I had sent a larva of 
H. arbuti reared from an egg laid, I presume, within a 
flower of G. arvense (as after many repeated close 
searches I failed to find more than the two before 
mentioned on G. arvense), and he, returning home with 
some of that species for food on July 2nd, found a 
larva of H. arbuti emerging from one of the seed 
capsules he had gathered. 

The egg of Heliodes arbuti is globular, about f mm. 
in diameter, having a slight depression beneath ; it 
seems thin-shelled and finely pitted all over, shining, 



HELIODES ARBTJTI. 87 

and is of full yellow colour, turning rather brownish 
just before hatching on the seventh day. 

The newly-hatched larva is white, with brown head 
and a narrow brown plate on the second segment. 
After living hidden within a seed-capsule and feeding 
on the unripe contents for about from fifteen to seven- 
teen days, during which it has got through its earliest 
moultings and acquired a colouring that assimilates 
most wonderfully well with that of the capsule of the 
plant, as it waits outside for its penultimate moult ; it 
has a brown head streaked and spotted with darker 
brown, and the body is either of a pale watery-green 
colour or slightly tinged with pinkish-grey, and 
marked with a dark green dorsal line, a whitish sub- 
dorsal line, and a stouter white spiracular line, the 
ventral legs clear and nearly colourless ; after this 
moult it is nearly six millimetres long, the head and 
second segment pale brown, with slightly darker brown 
marks, the rest of the body much deeper and richer 
coloured than before, either a greenish-grey or a pink- 
ish-grey ground — as both varieties occur at this stage 
— and now the dark slaty-green dorsal line runs in the 
middle of a broad softened stripe of paler ground- 
colour than the rest of the back and the side ; next 
comes the whitish subdorsal line, and after an interval 
of ground-colour the perfectly white spiracular stripe ; 
both of these are very conspicuous. Though all the 
ventral legs are equally well developed, it still often 
assumes its former favourite position while resting, 
which is very much like that of a half-looper, holding on 
sometimes by the anal and the fourth pair of ventral legs 
only, at other times with the addition of the third pair, 
while the others and all the fore-part of the body are 
held off free, with the head bending downwards, form- 
ing an arch. After feeding three days the ground- 
colour is lighter and greener, and the length when 
laid up is eleven millimetres. 

After the last moult it attains in four days its full 
growth, when the length is twenty millimetres and 



88 HELIODES AKBUTI. 

stoutisTa in proportion, of true Noctua form, with 
plump twelfth segment ; the thoracic segments slightly- 
taper towards the smaller and rather flattened head ; 
the mouth prominent. In colour the head and plate 
are of a light greenish tint and glossy, the ground of 
the rest of the body is light green, the dorsal line dark 
green, the whitish subdorsal line is finely edged above 
with darker green than that of the back and side ; 
the yellowish or yellowish-white spiracular stripe is 
well relieved along the upper margin by a conspicuous 
dark green stripe ; the spiracles are whitish, finely 
outlined with black ; the tubercular dots are brown, 
but too minute for any but powerfully-assisted vision ; 
the belly and legs a rather paler green than the back, 
the skin soft and smooth ; when it has ceased to feed 
and is laid up all the lines soon disappear, and it is then 
of a uniform green colour. 

The larva fabricates at about an inch or two beneath 
the surface of the soil a cocoon of earth, with a thick- 
ness of wall about one millimetre, or in parts even 
less, kneaded well together with silk, and slightly 
attached to a few coarse particles of earth outside ; it 
is of close texture and not very brittle ; the general 
figure is roundish or roundish-oval, and it measures 
about nine by six or seven millimetres ; the interior 
is very smooth, and just fits the pupa comfortably 
without room to spare; the pupa itself is of a very 
dumpy form, with rather a bluntly tapered abdomen, 
having at the tip two fine thorny points of inconceiv- 
able minuteness, and in contact with the compressed 
old larval skin ; in colour the pupa skin is reddish- 
brown and rather shiniug, and in length six to seven 
millimetres. 

The perfect insects were bred, both male and female, 
in the morning of the 4th, and a female on the ] 1th 
of this month (May, 1882). (W. Buckler, 12th May, 
1882 ; E.M.M., July, 1882, XIX, 36.) 



AGROPHILA SULPHURALIS. 89 

Agrophila SULPHURALIS. 
Plate 0, fig. 5. 

Hubner's figures of this species leave me little that 
is new to say about it ; still I feel much indebted to 
Mr. T. Brown, of Cambridge, for enabling me to rear 
a larva which Mr. Buckler has figured. 

Unluckily, although the moth had laid several eggs, 
they all perished in the post-office save one, and the 
single larva did not live to become a pupa, having been 
hatched on June 25th, and dying on August 15th. 

I potted for it a small plant of Convolvulus arvensis, 
and on two little shoots of this, bearing in all not 
more than five or six very small leaves, it fed and 
grew and moulted contentedly during the first half of 
its fifty days' life, its longest journey all that time 
not exceeding an inch and a half. 

Had the other eggs escaped squashing on their 
journey, probably I might have had the pleasure of 
seeing both the varieties which Hiibner figures, but the 
green one yet remains a desideratum ; my single larva 
was his brown variety. 

When first hatched, it was a dingy-grey little 
looper, with a black transverse dorsal hump on each 
of the four middle segments, but at each moult these 
humps became less, till at last there remained nothing 
but the usual dorsal dots, black and distinct, and 
these too afterwards disappeared. When full-grown 
the larva is about an inch long ; the legs twelve ; the 
body cylindrical, thickest at the fourth segment ; the 
segmental divisions deeply indented; when at rest 
the middle segments are generally arched, and the 
head bent down. The colour a rich chocolate-brown; 
dorsal line rather darker, and edged with very fine 
paler lines ; subdorsal line also darker, but scarcely 
visible ; spiracular stripe broad, of a pale yellow, and 
with a fine brown thread running throughout its 
length; immediately after the last moult there were 



90 AGROPHILA SULPHUBALIS. 

some ricli yellow and orange spots also in it, but 
these disappeared, and the whole stripe grew paler. 
(John Hellins, September 16th, 1867; E.M.M., 
October, 1867, IV, 115.) 



AOONTIA LUOTUOSA. 

Plate 01, fig. 1. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Howard Vaughan for 
kindly giving me the opportunity of figuring and 
describing larvae of this species, as well as for 
furnishing some interesting details concerning their 
earlier stages. 

The eggs were laid on the 7th and 8th of June, 
1868, and hatched on the 16th and 17th of the 
month. 

The young larvae at first appeared to be veritable 
loopers, twelve legs only being visible ; but as they 
grew larger the other legs became apparent, though 
still in walking they did not use the first pair of 
ventral legs. 

They appeared to be nocturnal feeders, eating the 
flowers and seeds, as well as the leaves, of Convolvulus 
arvensis ; they reposed, lying along and closely em- 
bracing the stems of the food-plant, close to the 
ground, and in this position would easily escape 
observation. 

The full-grown larva is about one inch and a quarter 
in length, slender, and stoutest in the middle, and 
tapering a little towards the head (which is smaller 
than the second segment), and more to the posterior 
extremity ; the folds and divisions moderately indented 
on the first four or five segments, but hardly noticeable 
on the remainder. The two hinder pairs of ventral 
legs more developed than the two preceding pairs. 

The ground-colour on the middle of the back is a 
pale greyish-ochreous, brownish-grey, or reddish-grey, 
the sides being darker and browner ; the dorsal stripe 



AOONTIA LTJOTUOSA. 91 

tapers at each extremity of the larva, but is narrowest 
on the anterior segments, the stripe itself being of the 
pale ground-colour above mentioned, but faintly out- 
lined interruptedly by short dots or lines of black ; 
sometimes towards each segmental division it is deli- 
cately freckled with a slightly deeper tint of the same, 
and, in some examples, two short black streaks, rather 
thicker than those that outline the stripe, appear at 
the beginning of each segment, almost forming a v? 
pointing forwards. 

The pale region of the back assumes a kind of chain 
pattern from being bounded on each side by a rather 
broad sinuous border of dark grey-brown, on which 
are placed the anterior pairs of tubercular dots, being 
large and very pale greyish, delicately margined with 
blackish; the posterior pairs small and black. 

The subdorsal stripe is but little paler than the 
dark ground-colour of the sides, and chiefly towards 
the head, and just a little at the beginning of each 
segment, the stripe is edged with a line of dark brown ; 
beneath this again come three other dark brown lines, 
the lowest of which is the spiracular, and is thicker 
than the others; the upper two are slightly sinuous, and 
the second bears a pale tubercular spot at the anterior 
part of each segment, and also touches the spiracular 
line in the middle of the segment. 

The spiracles are black and circular. Below them 
is a broad stripe of very pale brownish-grey, edged 
above with a paler thread, and below with a little 
darker stripe of reddish or greyish brown, followed 
by another close above the legs of paler greyish-brown. 
The belly slightly deeper greyish-brown, with a 
central brown stripe bearing on the middle of each 
segment beyond the fourth a blackish round spot. 
Legs pale brownish- grey ; pro-legs similar, and with a 
dark brown dot above their fringes. 

The head slightly hairy, and very pale greyish, 
having on each side four lines of black dots in con- 
tinuation of dark stripes on the body. The second 



92 ACONTIA LUCTUOSA. 

segment has a semilunar dull dark brown plate, 
through which run conspicuously the dorsal and sub- 
dorsal pale stripes. 

The pupa is subterranean. (William Buckler ; 
E.M.M., August, 1868, V, 75.) 

Erastria fuscula. 
Plate CI, fig. 3. 

To Mr. G. 0. Bignell, of Devonport, my best thanks 
are due, not only for kindly supplying me with the 
larva of this species in the autumn of 1873, but also 
for clearing up what had been the reason of my 
failing to procure it before. 

One night in the autumn of 1857, the year in which 
I began collecting, I found a twelve-footed larva 
walking on the ground, which spun up at once, and, 
during the next summer, produced E. fuscula. Not 
having found it on its food, and seeing that the books 
with one consent gave bramble as the food, for many 
subsequent years I used to beat the brambles in the 
same locality, hoping to get more larvae ; and when I 
could take the moths I used to shut them up with 
bramble sprays in order to try for eggs. But in 
neither case were my efforts successful, — and why ? 
In the autumn of 1873 Mr. Bignell, whilst sweeping 
herbage at night, took several larvae off a stiff grass, 
Molinia cserulea, growing in damp places ; these, on 
examination, he concluded to be E. fuscula, and the 
following summer proved his conclusion to be correct. 

The secret of our previous puzzle is now out ; one 
might have beaten brambles for ever without finding 
a larva. 

The larvae came to me on September 10th, 1873, 
and spun up by the end of the month ; the moths 
appeared during the last week of May, 1874. 

The full-grown larva is about three-quarters of an 
inch long, rather slender, and even in bulk through- 
out ; the twelfth and thirteenth segments taper a 



ERASTRIA FUSCTJLA. 93 

little ; the head full and round ; fully-developed ventral 
legs on segments 9 and 10, with rudiments of legs on 
segment 8 ; in walking it is a semi-looper ; the colour 
on the back is pale yellow with a broad greenish 
pulsating dorsal vessel ; the subdorsal is a thin line 
of clear yellow edged above with brown, and below 
with greenish ; the round black spiracles placed on a 
thin reddish line ; anal legs sometimes purplish ; the 
usual dots on the back blackish ringed with reddish ; 
the belly yellow, with its dots black. 

Some of the larvse have a more reddish tint, and 
have every line edged with decided red ; with a 
brownish stripe between the lower edging of the sub- 
dorsal and the spiracular line, and below this again a 
yellow line, then a red line, and the belly dull pale 
brownish. 

The cocoon is very firmly and neatly made of a thin 
coating of silk, stuck all over with fine earth or sand, 
about four lines deep and two wide. Some spun 
among moss, by larvse which died, were not so close 
or tough, and were both longer and wider. 

The pupa is about five-sixteenths of an inch long, 
cylindrical, stoutish about the thorax, the abdomen 
smaller and short in proportion, ending rather bluntly 
in a spike set with several curled-topped spines ; the 
pupa skin very glossy, rich red-brown; the wing- 
cases more golden-brown ; the eyes blackish. 

By the kind help of the Rev . T. A. Marshall I am 
able to add that the name of the ichneumon, which 
was bred about the middle of April from some of the 
cocoons, is Proteins chrysojphihalmus. A saw-fly larva 
much resembling that of E. fuscula in colour feeds 
with it on the same grass, but I have not found out to 
what species it belongs ; and I shall leave some one 
else to guess which of the two is the first wearer, and 
which the mimic, of the colours of their common 
dress. (J. Hellins, 14th July, 1874; E.M.M., August, 
1874, XI, 66.) 



94 BANKIA BANKIANA. 

Bankia BANKIANA. 
Plate 01, fig. 4. 

This pretty and active little Noctua, of which nothing 
had been heard for a long interval of time, was in the 
season of 1882 re-discovered by Mr. (now the Rev.) 
Gr. H. Raynor,* who found it in some abundance near 
Ely, and succeeded in obtaining a good number of 
eggs, and most kindly sent a liberal supply of them to 
my friend the Rev. J. Hellins and myself ; those I 
received were laid within a glass-topped box, to which 
they adhered, as well on the glass as on the paper, 
beiug sprinkled over both surfaces singly, with occa- 
sionally two together. 

The eggs arrived on the 7th of June, 1882, and 
began to hatch on the 9th, while yet the exact nature 
of the proper food-plant for the larvae seemed some- 
what uncertain ; a low plant had indeed been suggested 
to me by Mr. Raynor for trial, since although Gruenee 
had distinctly stated grasses to be the food, he had not 
mentioned any particular species of grass ; I soon 
found, however, the low plants refused, and then tried 
a small Gar ex ; they fed a little on this and on coarse 
grasses, but the little larvae began to die off; when, 
fortunately, before all had hatched out and died, it 
was found that Poa annua, a common grass growing 
almost everywhere, was quite to their taste, and the 
fact was at once kindly imparted to me both by Mr. 
Hellins and Mr. Raynor. 

The larvae throve very well on the Poa up to the 
third week in July, when, as often happens with this 
grass indoors, it was attacked by mould, which caused 
the death of almost all my larvae ; however, Mr. 
Hellins most kindly sent me several of his, which had 
been kept in the open air, so that I was able to con- 

* Or rather by Messrs. W. Warren and Cross (see E.M.M., October, 
1883, p. 117). 



BANKIA BANKIANA. 95 

tinue my observations until the end of the month, 
when the larvae reached fall growth. 

I kept my pupae alive through the winter, but sup- 
pose I mismanaged them during the month of May, 
1883, by keeping them too much exposed to rain, as I 
bred only one specimen, a male, on the 29th of June. 

The egg of B. banhiana is globular in shape, with a 
slight depression at the base, about one-thirty-fifth of 
an inch in width, and one-fiftieth of an inch in height, 
with about thirty-four shallow ribs, and with shallower 
transverse reticulations ; the central space in the top is 
flat with large shallow reticulations ; the shell has a 
pearly sheen ; when first laid, it was said to be of a 
dull whitish, having the faintest greenish tinge, and 
then gradually turned to a pale greenish-yellow. 

When first hatched the larva has the ventral legs 
developed on the ninth and tenth segments, and a 
small undeveloped pair on the eighth; it is of pale 
yellowish-green colour, with very fine black dots and 
hairs. After feeding a few hours the interior became 
deeply tinged with dark green, which showed strongly 
through the clear skin, especially in the middle of the 
body ; when eight days old the skin became less clear, 
and of a uniform light yellowish -green with blackish 
tubercular dots. 

In twelve or thirteen days they moulted the first 
time, and became less transparent than before ; and 
after the second moult, in five or six days' time, they 
were long and slender, and of a more opaque velvety 
green, and faintly showed subdorsal lines of paler green. 

After another week the third moult occurred, when 
the ground-colour was a little fresher than before, the 
head very pale green, and a dorsal line of darker green 
than the ground showed faintly here and there ; the 
subdorsal lines were whitish -yellow, and also the seg- 
mental divisions, while the length had increased to 
seven and a half lines. 

The fourth moult occurred on the 14th of July, and 
by the next day they had become nine lines long, and 



96 BANKIA BANKTANA. 

the small undeveloped pair of legs on the eighth seg- 
ment were still to be noticed ; the slender proportions 
of the larvae, remarkable from the first, seemed now to 
be even more striking as they attained full growth 
towards the end of the month, when they measured 
from eleven to twelve lines in length ; they were of a 
very yellow-green colour, with yellow segmental folds, 
the round head of a light green colour with upper lip 
whitish, and mouth black; the dorsal line dark green, 
though faint; the subdorsal stripe primrose-yellow; 
the roundish spiracles flesh-coloured, placed on the 
deep yellow thread-like trachea, showing faintly 
through the skin. 

On the 1st of August one larva began to spin its 
cocoon just beneath the crown of the grass-roots, 
almost close to the surface of the earth ; and others 
followed in the same way during the next four days, 
though one larva lingered two or three days longer ; 
this was exactly an inch long as it lay stretched out, 
according to the habit of this species when at rest 
among the grass, which it matched in colour remark- 
ably well. 

The pupa is very short, stout, and dumpy, three 
and a half lines in length, the thorax and wing-covers 
well defined, the last rather long in proportion, 
and from them the abdomen tapers obtusely to the 
tip, which is furnished with two fine points and 
minute curly-topped bristles ; its colour at first is of a 
light drab, but towards May of the year following it 
becomes a dark brownish-green, and is rather shining. 
(William Buckler, 24th July, 1883; E.M.M., Sep- 
tember, 1883, XX, 77.) 

Hydeelia unoana. 

Plate 01, fig. 5. 

I am indebted to Mr. Carrington for eggs of this 
species. They were laid on June 23rd and 24th, 1868, 
and received by me on the 28th June. 



HYDRELIA UNO ANA. 97 

The egg is soft-looking, rather irregularly shaped, 
but still of the usual echinus-like outline, with nearly 
forty very shallow and irregular ribs, connected by 
irregular transverse reticulations, and in colour a full 
yellow ; in fact, it looks like a little speck of butter. 

On June 29th the eggs became dark grey, and on 
the 30th the larvse came forth ; by the 17th of July 
they were about a third of an inch in length, by the 
28th they were three-quarters of an inch, and by the 
third week of August full-grown. 

They fed well on Gar ex sylvatica ; when at rest, 
stretched out flat along the blades of their food ; 
looping in walking, and jumping about angrily when 
touched. 

The newly-hatched larva is a little greenish looper, 
with the usual dots showing brown, and emitting 
bristles. As it grows it becomes more and more of a 
full green after every moult. When it is full-grown 
the length is quite an inch, the figure slender, cylin- 
drical, uniform throughout in bulk, save that the third 
segment seems a trifle swollen, and the last three 
segments taper slightly to the anal flap, which is 
bluntly rounded off, or almost squared off; the head 
is hard and globular, about as wide as the second 
segment ; there are two pairs of ventral legs fully 
developed and usable, and the rudiments of another 
pair, useless. 

The colour is a full velvety-green, with a pulsating 
dorsal vessel of a darker tint ; there is a fine whitish- 
green subdorsal line, and a rather broader spiracular 
line of very pale yellow ; the spiracles are indistinctly 
brownish, and the hinder segments paler than the rest 
of the back ; the belly is also paler, but still of a soft 
rich green ; the head somewhat yellowish-green. 

The larvae retired under ground for pupation. 
(John Hellins, December 14th, 1869; E.M.M., March, 
1870, VI, 232.) 



VOL. VI. 



98 BREPHOS NOTHA. 

BREPHOS NOTHA. 

Plate CI, fig. 7. 

I had no opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
this species till 1869, when Mr. W. H. Harwood 
kindly sent me several young larvae ; these fed well, 
but as I did not know how to provide for their pupa- 
tion, my hopes of seeing the imago in 1870 were sadly 
blighted. However, in that year Mr. W. R. Jeffrey 
sent me two larvae from Saffron Walden, and as I 
managed to accommodate them more suitably than 
my former stock I succeeded in rearing two fine 
moths. 

As the insects appear early in April, the eggs must 
be laid some time during that month ; the larvae feed 
on aspen (Populus tremula), spinning the leaves 
together flat-wise for concealment; those I had in 
1869, on June 2nd, were still small, barely half an 
inch in length, but they grew fast after this, and 
retired to change by the 29th. The dates I have for 
the appearance of the imago are April 8th and 9th, 
1870 (both cripples), and April 4th and 7th, 1871. 

The larva, up to half an inch in length, is very 
dingy, nearly black, but bearing some exceedingly 
fine, pale drab longitudinal lines ; after moulting, and 
when about three-quarters of an inch in length, it 
becomes less like a Noctua in form than it was before, 
and more like a Geometer, both in form and manner of 
progression ; its colour now is of a delicate green, 
inclining in some instances to glaucous ; the longitu- 
dinal lines become whitish-yellow ; the head and second 
segment spotted with black ; the segmental folds 
whitish-yellow. The growth now is rapid, and in 
some individuals black spots appear on the sides, in a 
day or two developing into stripes ; but in others no 
more spots appear than those on the head and second 
segment. 

The larva, when full-grown, is about one inch in 



BREPHOS NOTHA. 99 

length, not very stout, cylindrical, and diminishes so 
very slightly towards the extremities, that it appears 
of uniform bulk throughout; the head is full and 
rounded ; the two front pairs of ventral legs are much 
less developed than the next two pairs, and the hind- 
most pair are splayed laterally ; beneath the anal flap 
is a small point, with a tubercle on each side of it ; 
the segments are plump and well-defined ; the mode 
of progression is an undulating, half-looping, quick 
walk, changed to what may be called a run when the 
larva is exposed to light. 

The ground-colour is now of a pale subdued tint of 
green, or else a bright velvety yellowish-green, the 
dorsal vessel rather a deeper tint of the same, edged 
with fine lines of pale greenish-yellow ; the subdorsal 
fine line is yellow, and between it and the spiracles 
runs another such fine line. The side being now more 
or less black is, by this pale line, divided into two 
broad black stripes, which in some specimens are 
complete, in others only partly so ; the spiracles are 
white, outlined delicately with black, and beneath 
them is a broadish stripe of pale yellow or whitish- 
yellow ; the belly and legs paler green than the back ; 
in one individual a short, tapering, black streak issued 
at the end of each segment for half its length forwards 
as an edge to the subdorsal line, but these streaks 
began on the twelfth and ceased at the fifth segment. 
The black marks on the head and second segment 
appear to be constant, and characteristic of this 
species ; they may be more minutely described as 
follows : — a broad irregular blotch down the front of 
each lobe, forked at the side, and a round spot on the 
face between them, and two pairs (sometimes more) 
of black dots on the second segment ; the pale lines 
of the back are absent from the second segment and 
from the anal flap ; the anterior legs generally dotted 
with black. One of Mr. Jeffrey's larvas furnished a 
good variety ; its colour was a dingy, rather olive- 
brown, with the lines of a pale pinkish-grey, with 



100 BREPHOS NOTHA. 

only the usual black marks on the head, second seg- 
ment, and anterior legs. 

My first set of larvse I furnished with earth and 
moss for pupation, with the result of causing the 
death of all but two, which produced crippled insects ; 
the second set were supplied with pieces of bark, into 
which they could bore, and I now understand that a 
dead stick or piece of dry decaying wood would have 
been better still, for the habit of the larva is to exca- 
vate in the solid bark or wood a smooth cylindrical 
chamber (reminding one much of the work of some of 
the carpenter bees) just big enough — without the 
least waste of space — to accommodate the pupa with 
the shrivelled larva-skin behind ; the circular entrance 
to the chamber is stopped with the gnawed raspings 
of the wood mixed with silk, but there is no silken 
lining to the chamber itself; the pupa lies with its 
head towards the entrance, and, after the exit of the 
moth, the empty pupa-skin remains in the chamber. 

The pupa is about half an inch long, cylindrical, 
and uniform, except a rapid tapering at the tail end, 
and tolerably smooth except at the abdominal divi- 
sions, where there are rings of minute points ; the 
abdomen terminates in a thick, blunt, somewhat flat- 
tened knob, furnished with two spikes, which, instead 
of projecting as usual in the same line with the body 
(or knob), turn off at right angles on either side; the 
colour a shining dark red-brown. (W. B., June, 
1872; E.M.M., July, 1872, IX, 41.) 



Plusia orichalcea. 

In the month of July, 1882, in an outlying part of 
the Cambridgeshire Fens, eight or ten worn specimens 
of Plusia orichalcea were captured by the aid of a 
lamp, hovering round flowers of Eupatorium canna- 
binum; one only, the first specimen obtained, was 
taken flying in the afternoon sunshine. This year I 



PLTJSIA ORICHALOEA. 101 

had the good fortune to beat ten specimens of a larva 
which, though exactly like that of PI. gamma, but a 
little larger, produced in July nine beautiful PI. ori- 
chalcea. Three others were obtained, one each by 
Messrs. Archer, Cross, and Raynor, of Ely, but were 
not reared. Of the earlier stages of the larvae I 
cannot speak, as those beaten were all past, or near, 
their last moult. As far as I could see, their colour, 
size, and markings are exactly those of PL gamma. 
There are two fine white lines down the back from 
the third to the penultimate segment, with the dorsal 
vessel showing darker green between them ; oblique 
white lateral lines on each of these segments. On 
the second and third segments and on the anal seg- 
ment, there are five irregular white lines, which unite 
together in front, in the direction of the head. The 
spiracles are white and small, except the last, which 
is conspicuously larger than the rest. But the most 
striking feature of this larva is its wonderful power of 
extending and withdrawing the first three or four 
segments of its body, and reminding one of the larva 
of Chserocamjoa elpenor, or of the common earth-worm. 
When full-fed the larvse spun a flat oval pad of white 
silk on the side of the muslin bag in which they were 
reared, and thereon remained for twenty-four hours 
or longer, perfectly motionless, in a horseshoe-shaped 
form, the head in close proximity to the tail. After 
this interval of rest they proceeded to spin the rest of 
their cocoons, which were soon completed, being thin 
and transparent enough to allow of the easy observa- 
tion of every movement of the larva inside. The 
cocoon, when finished, is oval, with the longer axis 
perpendicular, and the larvae all pupated with the 
head upwards. They took a week to pupate after 
the cocoons were completed, and remained in pupa 
just a fortnight, the female in all cases emerging 
twenty-four hours sooner than the male. The pupa 
of PI. orichalcea may be at once distinguished from 
that of PI. gamma, which is wholly black, by its 



102 PLUSIA ORICHALCEA. 

having the underneath part and the wing-cases of a 
lovely pale green, a colour which, three or four days 
before the perfect insects emerge, gradually changes 
into a dull pink, foreshadowing the colouring of the 
under side of the abdomen and wings of the imago. 

The habit of the larva appears to be to eat the 
young top leaves of the Eujpatorium, and work down- 
wards. When not engaged in feeding it rests on the 
under side of a leaf, grasping the midrib. 

One larva, in the course of its last moult, failed to 
throw off its old skin in its entirety ; a narrow band 
of which remained in an oblique position, embracing 
the eighth segment, the hinder part of the seventh 
segment on one side, and the former part of the ninth 
on the other. This band, as it dried, had tightened, 
constricting the body till it was only half its normal 
diameter, and enabling the w r hole of the internal 
structure and workings to be plainly seen. As the 
larva was evidently unable to extricate itself I care- 
fully inserted the eye of a needle beneath the ligature, 
-and, aided by sundry energetic wrigglings of the larva 
itself, split it asunder. The body soon resumed its 
usual dimensions, and the larva fed up and turned all 
right, and the imago emerged apparently perfect ; 
but when I got it on the board I found the left fore- 
wing, though not crippled, about one-eighth of an 
inch shorter than the right. 

I think it is quite possible that Plusia orichalcea 
may be more widely spread than is generally supposed. 
The perfect insect is rarely seen except at night, 
and the larva would be easily passed over as only 
PL gamma. I hope to be able to give a fuller account 
of its earlier stages another year. (W. Warren, 
September 17th, 1883; E.M.M., October, 1883, XX, 
116.) 



PLUSIA BBAOTEA. 103 

Plusia BRACTEA. 
Plate CII, fig. 4. 

I received thirty-six eggs of Plusia bractea from Dr. 
F. Buchanan White on the 1st of August, 1872. 

The egg is hemispherical above, but flattened and 
slightly depressed beneath ; the upper surface is finely 
ribbed and reticulated ; below, it is smooth and glisten- 
ing. Its colour is a greenish yellowish white. 

The eggs the day before hatching (on the 7th) be- 
came whity-brown, and a blotch at the top appeared, 
composed of minute brown specks. 

The young larvae were whitish with whity-brown 
heads, each segment with a transverse row of blackish 
dots bearing dusky hairs, but these dots and hairs 
very faintly visible with a strong lens. 

The larvse fed at first and throve well on groundsel 
up to the end of August, when they had attained the 
length of three-eighths of an inch, and then they began 
to show a dislike to their food and to die off. Some were 
placed on Lamium maculatum, which they partook of 
and looked better, but towards the end of September, 
they died off by twos and threes, and the last indivi- 
dual died on the 4th of October. (William Buckler, 
October, 1872; N.B., I, 137.) 

April 24th, 1873. — Some of this brood Mr. George 
Norman, of Forres, had fed on stinging-nettle with 
success as long as the food was procurable ; after- 
wards, at my suggestion, on Lamium purpureum, on 
which food he succeeded in bringing ^.ye or six through 
the winter. On the above date I received from him 
the loan of a fine healthy example fed up to the verge of 
its final moult. At this time it was seven-eighths of an 
inch long, and stout in proportion, tapering rapidly and 
considerably from the fourth segment to the head, which 
is much the smallest segment. Its colour was a pale 
tint of yellowish-green, becoming rather whitish-green 
on the hinder dorsal surface ; its lines whitish but 



104 PLUSIA BRACTEA. 

showing very faintly, two down the middle of the back 
representing the dorsal line ; these diverge about the 
middle of each segment, and contract again to a 
parallel course at the end of it ; on each side of these 
run two more, the outer one the most distinct, and on 
these are the faint whitish tubercular dots, each fur- 
nished with a fine black hair ; next come a few whitish 
minute dots along each segment, the ground-colour 
here growing a little deeper in tint ; then comes the 
spiracular yellowish-whitish line ; on this the flesh- 
coloured spiracles are situated, and most delicately 
ovalled with black ; beneath a few faint whitish dots 
are sprinkled ; the head is of a watery whitish-green, 
having a black streak down the side of each lobe. 
The few hairs scattered along the sides are whitish. 

At this time it did not eat, and was evidently about 
to moult, but this operation did not occur until the 
29th, when it assumed its new dress of bright green, 
and the two pale dorsal lines filled up with green rather 
darker than the ground ; the other pale lines, tuber- 
cular warts, and small dots just the same as before, 
only showing now more distinctly. The head green, 
with a conspicuous broadish black streak on each side. 

On the afternoon of the 30th it began to make its 
first meal, after fasting at least eight days. 

On the 6th of May it was now an inch and a quarter 
in length, with the spiracles and mouth deep flesh- 
colour, the former in delicate black oval rings. Hairs 
blackish towards and on the head, the rest pale flesh- 
colour ; the tubercles sprinkled on the sides and under 
the belly ; markings as before ; the inner sides of the 
anterior legs twice barred with black at the base ; the 
belly the deepest green. It has preferred Lamium 
album. 

This larva continued to feed on Lamium album up 
to the 15th of May, but as from thence to the 17th it 
had ceased to feed I put it in a jam-pot with food at 
the bottom, and tied over the top with leno. On the 
18th it spun a purse-like web partly on the side of the 



PLUSIA BBAOTBA. 105 

pot, but chiefly on the leno, and supported below by two 
leaves of L. album,, to which it was partly attached ; 
in shape ib was horizontally oval, but flattened at the 
top by the leno, and it measured an inch and three- 
eighths long by three-quarters of an inch broad, and 
the same in depth ; it was of whitish silk and semi- 
transparent, so that the larva could be faintly seen 
within it. 

On the 24th I examined the pupa, which was a 
little over three-quarters of an inch in length, very 
stout, with the tips of the wing-covers rounded and 
projecting from the abdomen. Its colour on the head, 
thorax, and abdomen blackish-brown, the segmental 
divisions pale pea-green, the wing-cases a bright full 
green at their edges and extremities, changing gradu- 
ally from thence towards their base into blackish- 
brown, and with but little polish. 

The moth appeared on the 20th of June, 1873. 
(William Buckler, June, 1873; N.B., I, 137 and 
165.) 

On the 3rd of August, 1882, I received from Mrs. 
Battersby, of Oromlyn, Eathowen, co. Westmeath, 
a batch of eggs laid by a captured female in a chip 
box, scattered over the surface singly, and side by side 
in little groups. 

The egg is round or globular, though a little flattened 
beneath where it adheres to the chip ; it is numerously 
ribbed and reticulated, very slightly glistening, and is 
of so pale a tint as not to be readily seen on the chip, 
though on close scrutiny and comparison together the 
delicate tint of the egg inclines to a greenish straw- 
colour. On the 4th many showed three brownish but 
extremely faint small dots, only visible with a strong 
lens. These dots represented the ocelli and mouth of 
the head of the embryo, and in the morning of the 
5th they began to hatch, and by the evening altogether 
fourteen or fifteen were disclosed, some much whiter 
than others, just as about ten or eleven eggs had 
brown centres, and they will, I suspect, prove to be 



106 PLUSIA BEAOTEA. 

not Plusia bractea, but another species. They proved 
without vitality. Those I took to be PI. bractea were 
the most numerous, and their larvse, when hatched, 
were quite white with faintly darker hairs. The 
others are rather less white, and have minute black 
dots and hairs. 

By the 9th of August they all had a watery greenish 
tinge, with the internal vessel bright yellowish-green, 
showing plainly through the transparent skin. 

I fed them at first with groundsel, which relaxed 
them so much as to cause a great mortality at the 
first moult on the 13th and 14th, when they were from 
five to five and a half millimetres long, and the 
tubercular black dots on the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
segments were larger than those on the other seg- 
ments. The larvao were thick behind and tapering 
anteriorly. 

Eleven I put when hatched on Stachys sylvatica 
are all doing well at this date. The larvaa are greener 
than before, some of a pale yellow-green, others much 
jdarker, showing the dark green internal vessel broadly 
through the skin, over which the white lines can be 
distinctly traced, and by the 16th of August they 
measured seven millimetres in length. On the 23rd 
they moulted the second time, and next day measured 
from nine to ten millimetres long, when their white 
lines were very much more distinct, as well as the 
white linear edging to the dark dorsal line. On the 
30th some were lying up, and on the 3rd of September 
had moulted the third time ; they continued to feed 
on Stachys sylvatica up to the 11th, and from that 
date to the 17th fed but little, and seemed to be getting 
torpid ; at this date only one survived of all those 
of the first lot that had been so purged by eating 
groundsel. By the end of October all had died except 
four, yet holding to Galeobdolon luteum; on the 11th 
of November only three were alive ; these on the 20th 
of that month I placed on potted plants of Galeobdolon 



PLUSIA BRAOTEA. 107 

luteum ; they were about thirteen millimetres long, and 
much as before. 

In 1883 I had more eggs of Plusia bractea from 
Mrs. Battersby, and they hatched early in August, 
and the larvse were placed on a potted plant of 
Lamium album, where they kept on the under-side of 
the leaves, puncturing them with small holes, and 
eventually a leaf or two had a dissected appearance. 
Thus they kept out of sight, though their presence 
was evidenced by larger and larger holes eaten through 
the leaves. They began to moult the third time on 
the 9th and 10th, the latest on the 14th, and were then 
transferred to a fresh-potted plant of Lamium album. 
(William Buckler, August, 1883; Note Book, IV, 
151.) 



Plusia iota. 
Plate Oil, ftg. 6. 

On the 6th of July, 1874, a few eggs (sixteen) of 
Plusia iota were kindly sent me by Mrs. Hutchinson, of 
Leominster. They were laid by a large worn captured 
female, and two or three had already hatched. The eggs 
were laid singly, adhering to the side of a chip box. 

The egg is hemispherical, flattened a little on the 
centre of its base, numerously ribbed, the ribs 
radiating from its upper centre, or rather conical apex. 
At this time it is in colour very pale whity-brown, 
scarcely to be distinguished from the chip on which 
they were laid. Around the top of each egg were 
three brown specks arranged in a triangle. After the 
extrusion of the larva the shell is left a clear glisten- 
ing white. 

Escaping from the egg by a hole through the side, 
the larva is then of a brownish whitish gelatinous 
appearance, or dirty whitish, with tubercular dots of 
grey -brown; the head with a dark grey-brown mark 



108 PLUSIA IOTA. 

on each side and at the mouth, which probably 
accounts for the triangular specks on the egg. 

In a few days after feeding on Lamium purpureum 
they became by degrees of a pale yellowish-green, and 
from the 1st of August their food was changed to 
Lamium album, and by the 1st of September they 
measured three-eighths of an inch in length, and by the 
16th half an inch in length, and were already hiber- 
nating. They were bright yellowish-green in colour, 
with slightly darker green dorsal stripe edged with a 
whitish-yellow line, followed closely by another such 
line, and the subdorsal line similar ; the spiracular line 
of the same colour, a trifle thicker and more distinct, 
the wart-like tubercles whitish and shining, each with 
a dark brown hair. 

During the winter they moved but little from the 
positions taken up on the roof of their cage, but in 
January, 1875, they crawled about, and even ate a 
little of Lamium purpureum. This they repeated at 
intervals during March. In April they began to 
moult and feed regularly at short periods, eating cow- 
parsley, honeysuckle, and Lamium album. They 
attained their full growth about the 17th of May, 
when they measured from an inch and three-eighths 
to an inch and a half in length, tapering gradually 
from the eighth segment to the fourth, from thence 
rapidly to the head, which is narrower than the second 
segment and rather flattened. The two hinder seg- 
ments are very little tapered. The twelfth slopes 
downwards from the middle rather abruptly towards 
the rounded anal tip. From the tenth forwards the 
segments are plump in the middle, and well-defined. 
Its colour is a pale and lively, or brilliant yellow-green, 
deepest in tint on the sides and belly, where it appears 
velvety. The head is rather the darkest green, 
broadly marked with black on the side of each cheek, 
from the mouth, which circumscribes the top of each 
lobe on the crown with a fine black edging. The 
triangular piece of the face is finely edged with black, 



PLUSIA IOTA. 109 

as are the parts of the mouth. The anterior legs are 
also jet-black ; the dorsal line is a little darker, rather 
bluish- green, narrowing and then widening about the 
middle, where it is crossed by a whitish streak, and 
from thence it narrows again to the end of each 
segment. This is bordered with greenish-white or 
whitish (pure white only when younger to half growth) 
followed closely by another such bordering, but this is 
interrupted by the anterior tubercle on each side, and 
at a short distance is an interrupted or broken finer 
subdorsal undulating line, broken by the hinder tuber- 
cular wart, followed by a few fine scattered specks ; 
midway between this and the fine clear yellowish- 
white spiracular line the green colour of the ground is 
deeper like that of the belly and ventral legs ; the 
spiracles, just beneath this line, are very small, oval, 
flesh-colour, delicately outlined with black ; along the 
sides and on the ventral legs are scattered a few 
whitish specks. The whitish borderings to the vas- 
cular dorsal line are very soft in character, and seem 
almost to melt one into the other. On the thoracic 
segments the green ground-colour is a little deeper 
than the rest, and has less of the whitish markings on 
it; each of the small wart-like tubercles is furnished 
with a fine pale hair ; the hairs proceeding from the 
head are dusky. The antennal papillse are translucent 
green with a double ring of black round the middle ; 
the ornamentation on the back is whitish-yellow. 

The larva spins a cocoon of an inch in length and 
five-eighths or even three-quarters of an inch in width, 
supported between the stalk and leaves of the food- 
plant. The cocoon is very thin, of a pale greyish 
dirty whitish tint and semi-transparent, so that the 
pupa can be seen within it. 

The pupa itself is three-quarters of an inch in 
length and rather stout, and on the thorax squarish in 
outline, with the head-piece a conical projection 
beyond ; the wing-cases at their ends and trunk 
together form a blunt convex projection low on the 



110 PLTJS1A IOTA. 

abdomen, and with the rounded end of it free from 
the abdomen. At first the pupa is green in colour, 
irregularly marked with crimson down the back, but 
by degrees this changes to blackish, and then the 
whole surface becomes black, but not very shining. 

The moths appeared on the 4th and 14th of June, 
the larvae having spun up from the 24th to the 30th 
of May. One larva, from Mrs. Hutchinson, which 
spun up on the 12th of May, produced the moth on the 
4th of June. (William Buckler, June, 1875 ; N.B., 
II, 85, 89, and 107.) 



Plusia pulchrina. 
Plate Oil, tig. 7. 

I have once or twice found the larva of this species 
myself, and in different years have received eggs or 
larvaB of it from Messrs. J. Gardner, of Hartlepool, 
and 0. W. Richardson, of Wakefield ; but it was not 
until 1878 that I had satisfactorily reared it through. 
The eggs are deposited in June or early in July, and 
are rather small for the size of the moth, round, but 
flattened above ; the colour very pale dull yellow, 
with a few very minute brown dots. They soon 
hatch, and the newly emerged larvse are greyish- white, 
indistinctly spotted with black, and the segmental 
divisions smoke-colour. They feed on dead-nettle 
{Lamium) and other low plants until autumn, when 
they commence hibernation, having attained the 
length of half to five-eighths of an inch. In spring 
they recommence feeding, and by the end of the first 
week in May are full-grown, and may be described as 
follows : 

Length about an inch and a quarter, and stout in 
proportion ; head glossy, with the lobes rounded, and 
narrower than the second segment; body cylin- 
drical, and the segments from fourth to twelfth inclu- 
sive of nearly uniform size and width ; the thirteenth 



PLTJSIA PULOHRINA. Ill 

segment is small and low, which makes the twelfth 
have a raised and swollen appearance; from the 
fourth to the head each segment becomes consider- 
ably smaller than the one behind it, giving the ante- 
rior of the larva a very pointed appearance ; skin 
rough, and, as well as the head, clothed with a few 
scattered but rather stiff hairs ; the segmental divi- 
sions are well-defined ; and, like others in the genus, 
there are only six prolegs. 

Ground-colour of the body and head bright apple- 
green ; the mandibles, and a rather broad stripe 
extending round each cheek, intensely black ; dorsal 
line darker green than the ground-colour, and edged 
on each side with two irregular interrupted white 
lines ; these lines become confluent on the posterior 
segments, and, with the white encircled tubercles, 
give the appearance of a somewhat variegated pat- 
tern ; there is also a very zigzag white line along the 
subdorsal region, and a white even line above the 
spiracles; spiracles oblong-oval, placed perpendicu- 
larly, cream-colour, encircled with brown ; the hairs 
have the lower part cream-colour, the tips brown. 
Ventral surface, legs, and prolegs uniformly apple- 
green. 

The larva rests with the anterior segments raised 
from the food-plant and the back arched like that 
of a Geometer, which gives it a rather grotesque 
appearance. Like its relatives it spins a moderately 
compact white cocoon amongst its food-plant, through 
which the black chrysalis can be readily seen. The 
moth emerges in about a month — that is, in the 
middle of June. (Geo. T. Porritt, Huddersfield, 
February 4th, 1881 ; Entom., March, 1881, XIV, 66.) 

On the 6th of May, 1876, I figured a nearly full- 
grown larva sent by Mrs. Hutchinson, which she had 
reared from the egg on cow-parsley, honeysuckle, etc., 
and sent me on the 25th of April, with another which 
died instead of spinning up. But the one which I 
figured on the 6th of May spun itself up within a day 



112 PLUSIA PULCHRINA. 

or two after, in a light filmy cocoon of silk of a whitish 
colour, as large as a pigeon's egg and of similar shape, 
spun to the leno cover and partly to the side of its pot. 
This cocoon, being very light, was sufficiently trans- 
parent to allow first the larva and then the form of 
the pupa to be seen plainly within it, and also the old 
larval skin next the tail of the pupa. On opening the 
cocoon, the pupa was found to measure rather more 
than three-quarters of an inch in length, by nearly a 
quarter of an inch in diameter at the thickest part. It 
tapered a little from the thora,x to the head, which was 
rather produced ; the abdomen was long in proportion, 
of about equal size, tapering on the last three segments, 
which, at the end, terminate in a rough knob furnished 
with a central short spike having two divergent curled 
tips, and surrounded with four or five shorter curled- 
tipped bristles ; the antenna-cases and trunk, together 
with the tips of the wing-covers, are well developed, 
and end in a triangular projection rather overlapping 
the abdomen. When opened on the 6th of October, 
the moth standing over, its colour was black and with- 
out gloss, dull on the wings, the abdomen very slightly 
glistening. (William Buckler, October, 1876 ; Note 
Book, II, 135.) 



Plusia gamma. 

Plate Oil, fig. 8. 

Notes on a probably hitherto undescribed form of the 
larva of Plusia gamma. — In the middle of July, 1892, Mr. 
Charles Whitehead, of Maidstone, sent me, on the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Stainton, three larvae for identification. 
The note accompanying the larvse stated they were 
abundant, feeding on clover, nettle, thistle, etc., and 
that as Plusia gamma had been abundant earlier in the 
year, Mr. Whitehead thought they must be a form of 
the larva of that insect, although so totally unlike the 
ordinary well-known form. On opening the box I saw 



PLUSIA GAMMA. 113 

at once that Mr. Whitehead was right in supposing 
them to be a Plusia, but as I had no recollection of 
seeing any larvae of PL gamma at all like them in 
appearance, I doubted the correctness of assigning 
them to that species. 

Three days later, on July 18th, I received five more 
of the larvae from Mr. Whitehead, and although none 
of them were quite so dark in colour as one or two of 
the previous specimens, and one was much greener, 
they were evidently the same thing. At this time, 
too, they began to spin up, although still quite small, 
and as the pupae seemed little more than a third the 
size of that of PL gamma, I became still more con- 
firmed in my doubt about them, and having failed in 
my attempts to find a description of any larva agree- 
ing with them, I began to have visions of a new 
Plusia / 

On the 4th of August Mr. Whitehead sent me one 
of two moths he had just bred from some of the larvae, 
and on the 6th he forwarded another ; whilst, in the 
meantime, I also had bred a good specimen, the only 
one which emerged from my larvae. All the moths were 
exceedingly small, less than half the size of a number of 
ordinary PL gamma which I netted for comparison 
on the Lancashire coast (where the species was flying 
in thousands) a fortnight ago. But, apart from size 
and the tone of colour, I could find nothing whatever 
to distinguish them from Plusia gamma. The colour 
was very perceptibly paler and more silvery, without 
any of the purple tint which characterised all the 
freshly-emerged specimens I caught this year, and also 
all the specimens in my cabinet. 

All the larvae when full-grown were, very small ; 
probably half of mine died without spinning at all, and 
from those that did spin and change to pupae, only one 
moth managed to emerge. Mr. Whitehead also wrote 
of his, that " many cocoons were imperfect and came 
to nothing." 

The subject is very interesting, and possibly some 

VOL. vi. 8 



114 PLUSIA GAMMA. 

of the readers of this note may be able to suggest an 
explanation. The colouring of the larvse, I am satis- 
fied, was perfectly natural, and not due in any way to 
disease or feebleness. The larva I described was 
darker than the majority, but the others were suffi- 
ciently near it to be included in the same type. 

Length when full-grown about an inch ; ground- 
colour very dark olive-green, in one specimen nearly 
black : head and prolegs intensely black and shining ; 
two very fine, interrupted, almost inconspicuous 
yellow lines extend through the dorsal region, fol- 
lowed outside by a broad, bright yellow, double sub- 
dorsal line, the outer of the two stripes being narrower 
than the inner; spiracular stripes also broad and 
bright yellow; tubercles raised, large and distinct, 
black, surmounted with a pale greyish-yellow spot, 
though these paler spots are less conspicuous on the 
side than on the dorsal tubercles ; each spot emits a 
single short stiff hair of the same grey colour; 
spiracles greyish-yellow, narrowly edged with brown ; 
ventral surface dark olive-green, the prolegs having 
on the outsides a large cup-shaped black mark. (Geo. 
T. Porritt, 7th September, 1892 ; E.M.M., October, 
1892, XXVIII, 255.) 

The article by Mr. Porritt, on a probably hitherto 
undescribed form of the larva of Plusia gamma im- 
mediately brought to my mind a similar experience 
during last July. On the 6th, 10th, and 14th of that 
month my boys discovered several small half-looper 
larvae whilst searching amongst Matricaria for those 
of Oucullia chamomillse. I was much puzzled with 
these larvae, although I had a suspicion that they 
would produce PL gamma, but they were so totally 
different from the usual form that I thought I might 
be mistaken. Speaking from memory, they exactly 
coincided with the description given by Mr. Porritt, 
and it was the dark olive-green colour of the stripes 
that so especially attracted my attention and caused 
my doubts, which were increased by the smallness of 



PLUSIA GAMMA. 115 

the larvse at the time of the pupal change. Only three 
individuals assumed the perfect state, the remainder 
of the larvse having died without spinning up, although 
constantly supplied with fresh food. Two specimens 
emerged on the 16th of August, and one later, but all 
were very diminutive, and had the same pale silvery 
appearance that struck Mr. Porritt. Two by accident 
escaped, but the third specimen is now in the cabinet. 
I may be mistaken, but I fancied that the usual at- 
tenuated character of the front segments of the larva 
of PI. gamma was absent in mv individuals. (J. 0. 
Miller, 1st October, 1892; E.MJML, November, 1892, 
XXVIII, 287.) 



Plusia interrogations. 
Plate Oil, fig. 9. 

On the 9th of June, 1869, I had the pleasure of 
receiving the larva, nearly full-fed, of this pretty 
species from Dr. F. Buchanan White, who had taken 
several in Inverness-shire, and who during the pre- 
vious autumn had swept up a few young examples 
from heather in Ross-shire, four of which he kindly 
sent to me in October. These were barely one-third 
of an inch long, and presented the same pattern as 
the mature larva, being of a full green colour with the 
subspiracular stripe of sulphur-yellow very conspicu- 
ous. They fed occasionally on heather till the end of 
November, and rested on the stems in a curved pos- 
ture. Only one, however, lived on to nearly the end 
of March, and was then half an inch long, and, no 
young shoots appearing on the heather, it fed a little 
on a blade of grass and sallow catkin ; but one morn- 
ing I had the mortification of seeing it hang lifeless 
from a stem. 

The full-grown larva measured nearly one inch and 
a quarter in length when stretched out, though it 
generally had the anterior half of its body arched 



116 PLUSIA INTEKROGATIONIS. 

upwards, being thick in proportion to its length, 
tapering gradually from the sixth segment to the 
head, which is smallest, the hinder segment tapering 
but little. Viewed sideways the back of the twelfth 
segment rises a little to the middle, and slopes rapidly 
downwards from thence to the anal extremity, the 
two pairs of ventral prolegs being equally developed. 

The ground-colour is a bright and deep full green, 
but paler on the back, though the dorsal stripe is as 
dark as the sides, and begins wide, narrows, then 
swells wider to an angle in the middle, decreases 
similarly, and widens towards the end, and is finally 
edged throughout with greenish-white. This is its 
course through all the segments except the thoracic, 
where it is more simple and linear. 

The subdorsal line is greenish-white, finely edged 
with darker green, and midway between the dorsal 
and subdorsal is a tortuous line of greenish-white, on 
which are the usual tubercular warts of the same 
colour, eaclf bearing a fine brown hair. The sub- 
spiracular stripe is sulphur-yellow, and the belly and 
legs are not quite so green as the space between the 
subspiracular and subdorsal lines. 

The head is green, finely freckled with greenish- 
white, and having a black streak round the sides to 
the mouth. Some very small yellow scattered tuber- 
cles on the ventral surface. 

On the 11th June it began to spin its pale grey 
silken oval cocoon amongst the stems of heather, and 
a few days later the pupa became dimly visible through 
it, lying in the middle in a nearly horizontal position, 
the head being lowest ; its length about half an inch, 
the wing-cases nearly as long, their tips uppermost, 
and projecting in a blunt point ; from them the abdo- 
men is bent downward at a right angle, having a 
blunt anal point attached to the shrivelled coat- skin 
of the larva; its general appearance rounded, obtuse, 
and thick, of a blackish-brown colour, and with 
scarcely any polish. 



PLUSIA INTERROGATIONS. 117 

The perfect insect emerged on July 8th, 1869. 
(W. B., 1869; E M.M., August, 1869, VI, 65.) 



TOXOOAMPA CRACOW. 

Plate CIV, %. 2. 

Larva (when full-grown) one inch and a quarter to 
one inch and a half in length. When viewed from 
above it tapers towards the head, and still more 
towards the posterior end; but when seen sideways 
appears almost uniformly long and slender. 

Its manner of walking is a partial looping of the 
first six segments ; the first two ventral pro]egs are 
very slightly shorter than the others, but to such an 
extent as to be scarcely noticeable, and it generally 
assumes an undulating posture in repose along the 
stem of its food-plant. 

Along the back, commencing on the head, is a dark 
brown, very finely mottled, broad stripe, widest along 
the middle segment, and with an additional widening 
on the eleventh segment ; in the centre of this is a 
thin, rather paler stripe, enclosing the very dark 
brown dorsal line. The subdorsal stripes are double, 
brown, with a paler ochreous-brown ground, followed 
by a pale stripe of ochreous, enclosing a very thin 
brown line ; the lateral lines double, dark brown, 
extending from the mouth to the anal prolegs ; edged 
above with black at the anterior portion of each 
segment; the upper one widening below in the 
middle, along which are some black dots. Belly and 
legs brown. Within the dark portion of the back, on 
each segment, are placed four black dots in the usual 
order, and on the eleventh segment there is an addi- 
tional black dot on each side, outside the dark region. 
Subdorsal lines also containing two black dots and a 
minute ring. 

Went to earth on the 24th of June. (W. B., July, 
1865 ; E.M.M., August, 1865, II, 67.) 



118 TOXOCAMPA CRAOOiE. 

On the 4th of May I received, through the kindness 
of the Rev. Mr. Horton, three little larvse of this 
species. They were from a quarter to half an inch 
in length, and of a slender figure, using only two pairs 
of their ventral feet. 

One of these larvse soon perished from a bite he 
had received during his journey from one of his com- 
panions ; and another died not long afterwards, as I 
believe, from my neglecting to supply it with young 
tender shoots of vetch ; whilst the third, after dwindling 
for a while, soon recovered its health when furnished 
with food tender enough for its taste. 

As I could not procure Vicia sylvatica, Dr. Knaggs 
told me that Orobus tuberosus and Vicia sepium would 
replace it, but I found that the young shoots of the 
last-named plant were most approved of. (John 
Hellins, July, 1865 ; E.M.M., August, 1865, II, 68.) 



Stilbia anomala. 
Plate CIV, fig. 3. 

On the 13th March, 1879, I received two very dis- 
tinct forms of the larva of this insect from Mr. G. 0. 
Bignell, of Stonehouse, Plymouth, to whom they had 
been sent from Torquay. 

Length about an inch, and of proportionate bulk ; 
nearly uniformly cylindrical ; head rounded and 
polished, about the same width as the second segment ; 
segmental divisions well defined ; skin soft and smooth, 
but not glossy. 

Yar. 1 has the ground-colour a warm pale chestnut- 
brown ; head greyish-brown, thickly freckled with dark 
brown ; two purplish-brown lines (black at the divi- 
sions of the hinder segments), enclosing a yellow line 
between them, form the dorsal stripe ; subdorsal 
stripes yellow, very finely edged with a darker shade 
of brown than the ground-colour; spiracular stripes 
greyish-white, edged above with smoke-colour ; spira- 



STILBIA ANOMALA. 119 

cles black, those on the second and twelfth segments 
very large and distinct. Ventral surface, legs, and 
prolegs uniformly dingy chestnut-brown. 

Yar. 2 has the ground-colour bright pea-green, with 
just a tinge of yellow ; head of the same colour, but 
thickly freckled with brown; two lines of a darker 
green than the ground, enclosing between them a 
white line, form the dorsal stripe; subdorsal stripes 
white, finely edged with a darker green than the 
ground-colour ; spiracular stripes white, edged above 
with smoke-colour; spiracles black as in var. 1. 
Ventral surface, legs, and prolegs uniformly of the 
same colour as the ground of the dorsal area. 

Feeds on grass. (Geo. T. Porritt, December 2nd, 
1879; E.M.M., February, 1880, XVI, 210.) 



Catooala fraxini. 
Plate CIV, fig. 4. 

On the 2nd of July, 1886, I received two larvae of 
Gatocala fraxini from Mr. R. 0. Ivy, of Southport. 
One of them was nearly adult, the other about half- 
grown. The former I described as follows : 

Length nearly three inches, but slender in propor- 
tion. Head broader than the second, but a little 
narrower than the third, segment, flattened in front 
and slightly notched on the crown. Body of fairly 
uniform width, but the seventh, eighth, ninth, and 
tenth segments the widest ; it is round above, but flat 
ventrally ; there is a small hump at the back of the 
ninth segment, and a smaller ridge at the back of the 
twelfth segment ; segmental divisions clearly defined ; 
skin smooth and without hairs dorsally, but there is a 
row of tolerably dense short hairs pointing down- 
wards below the spiracles, dividing the dorsal from 
the ventral area. 

The ground of the dorsal area is putty-colour, with 
strong greenish tinge, and freckled, particularly at the 



120 CATOCALA PRAXINI. 

hinder part of each segment, with minute brown dots ; 
head pale pink, surrounded at the back with a con- 
spicuous band of dark damson-plum colour ; this band 
narrows off to a point on each side the face ; the upper 
part of the face is also reticulated with this colour, 
but towards the mandibles are several dark brown 
streaks, whilst on each mandible and also on each 
side is a dark brown spot ; dorsal stripe very narrow, 
green ; spiracles oblong-oval, black, encircled with 
greyish- white ; the hump on the ninth segment is 
darker than the ground-colour, the dark colour ex- 
tending backwards, and forming a somewhat horse- 
shoe-shaped mark ; the back of the ridge on the 
twelfth segment is also of this dark colour ; segmental 
divisions of the same pink colour as the head. 

Ventral surface very pale greenish-white, with a 
large and conspicuous, nearly triangular, almost black 
markon the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh 
segments, and there are paler, more rust-coloured 
marks on the centre of the third and fourth segments ; 
legs and prolegs of the same colour as the ground of 
the ventral area, the anterior ones being tinged on the 
outside with pink ; hairs greyish-white. 

In the half-grown larva the head is considerably 
wider than any of the following segments, and the 
colours generally are of a darker shade all through. 
The head is of a darker pink, but this colour is nearly 
lost in the broad, dull, black band at the back, and the 
greater amount of equally dark reticulation on the 
face ; the ground on the dorsal area is much browner, 
and the narrow dorsal line is almost black ; the tuber- 
cles, which are not noticeable in the adult larva, are 
distinct, ochreous-yellow ; the spiracles are not so 
dark, and consequently much less conspicuous ; whilst 
the ventral surface is pinkish-grey, and the outside 
of both anterior legs and prolegs, together with the 
hairs, pink. 

The species feeds on ash and poplar, and both young 
and adult larvse rest at full length on the twigs or 



OATOOALA FEAXINI. 121 

small branches ; the six anterior legs, and the pro-legs 
on the ninth, tenth, and ventral segments, which are 
larger than the others, are spread out from the body, 
and give the larva a very sprawling appearance. 

Both larvae spun loose cocoons among the dead 
leaves, etc., at the bottom of their cage, and changed 
to ordinary- shaped pupae of a purple-plum colour, 
powdered with greyish as a ripe plum also is. 

The moths, two fine specimens, emerged on August 
25th and 26th, 1886, respectively. (Geo. T. Porritt, 
January 8th, 1890; E.M.M., May, 1890, XXVI, 125.) 



Catooala nupta. 

Plate CIV, fig. 5. 

I received eggs during the winter (1870-71) from 
Mrs. Hutchinson. The egg is circular, rounded and 
convex above, rather flattened beneath, and ribbed. 
It is of a brownish- grey colour, with two zones of 
blackish encircling them, separated only by a narrow 
ring rather paler than the ground-colour ; the ribs 
themselves of the grey ground like the central patch 
at the apex. (William Buckler, 1871 ; Note Book I, 
67.) 

Catooala promissa. 
Plate CV, fig. 1. 

On August 26th, 1875, Mr. J. Ross, of Bathampton, 
most kindly sent me thirty-nine eggs of this species, 
being the whole produce from six imprisoned female 
moths captured by him in the New Forest on August 
2nd, and with them the permission to select some for 
myself. 

The eggs had been laid from the 9th to the 16th of 
the month, some on oak bark, the others extruded 
through the interstices of the leno covering of their 



122 CATOOALA PROMISSA. 

cage, to which they adhered ; they were of two differ- 
ent colours, and I contented myself with choosing 
three of each, and returning the remainder to Mr. 
Ross, from whom I afterwards heard they all proved 
sterile. 

The egg of Catocala promissa is of a good size, of a 
rather flattened spherical figure, a little depressed in 
the upper centre and much more beneath, the shell 
covered with coarse, projecting, sinuated ribs, varying 
from fourteen to eighteen in number, so close together 
as almost to hide the surface between them, the de- 
pressed spot in the centre of the top coarsely reticu- 
lated ; when fertile it is of a dull drab colour, and so 
continues through the winter, but, as I found, when 
sterile it is dark brown, and eventually shrivels up. 

About the middle of April, 1876, while looking at 
the three drab-coloured eggs, I fancied two of them 
seemed rather more plump than before, and a close 
examination proved this to be the case, as a little of 
the smooth shell had become visible between the rough 
ribs, and the upper central hollow nearly filled up ; 
this last on the 18th was completely rounded over, 
and the ribs were turning paler ; on the 20th they had 
become whitish, and the interstices greenish-drab 
colour ; and on the morning of the 21st I found one 
larva was hatched ; the dull, whitish, empty shell 
showed a large hole in the side, through which the 
larva had escaped ; the next morning I saw a second 
had hatched. At this time none of the oak buds had 
burst, nor were many much swollen, but I picked open 
two or three at a time of the best to be found for the 
young larvaB to feed on, Mr. Ross also, at this 
juncture, kindly supplying me with a few tender oak 
leaves which he had contrived to force out; but in 
placing this food in the cage I noticed one of the 
larvss, when put on the leaves, swing away from them 
by a thread, and though I replaced it before shutting 
the cage, yet it must have again swung out, for at that 
moment I unconsciously lost it ; however, next morn- 



OATOOALA PROMISSA. 123 

ing (the 25th) I was somewhat consoled at seeing the 
third was hatched, and so I again had two young 
larvae to watch. Curiously enough, neither of them 
seemed to care then for the leaves, but chose the buds 
and those containing blossoms in preference, feeding 
only after dark, and resting all day stretched out at 
full length, motionless, belly upwards on the muslin 
cover of the cage, a habit continued through all stages 
of growth, the moulting included, a process which in- 
variably occurred at night, in that position, as proved 
by the cast skin next morning adhering to the muslin 
with all the legs spread out to their full extent. 

No doubt, in a state of nature, the larva passes the 
daylight in this quiescent position, probably cgi the 
under surface of horizontal or sloping twigs or 
branches of the oak, where it would be in shadow, and 
would assimilate wonderfully well to the more or less 
lichen- covered surface on which it would be closely 
pressed, and would be in a great measure safe from 
the prying eyes of birds, and, I may add, of entomo- 
logists, for I remember no recorded instance of its 
having been found at large by any who have collected 
in that favourite hunting-ground, the New Forest. 

The newly-hatched larva was three-sixteenths of an 
inch long, with largish head and slender body, stoutest 
at the ninth and tenth segments, the first two pairs of 
ventral legs quite rudimentary, the third and fourth 
pairs conspicuously developed, and also the anal pair ; 
its mode of progression was precisely similar to that of 
a geometer ; the colour of the head black, of the body 
a light drab, broadly banded with dark brownish-grey 
across most of the segments, with fine pale double lon- 
gitudinal lines along the sides, and with two pairs of 
black dots and bristles on the back of each segment ; 
after the first moult the dark bands disappeared, and 
the colouring was light greenish-grey, the dorsal line 
showed as darker, and then a lighter spear-shaped mark 
on each segment ; the pale twin-like subdorsal lines 
still remained, and below them a blackish blotch on the 



124 CATOCALA PROMISSA. 

side of each segment ; after the second moult, at 
the end of a fortnight, the larva was five-eighths of 
an inch in length, and of stouter character, having an 
elevated ridge on the back of the ninth and twelfth seg- 
ments, the anterior pairs of ventral legs now first in 
use for walking over the food by night ; the colour- 
ing very lichenous in appearance, no lines on the 
sides, but large and conspicuous whitish blotches on 
the fifth, eighth, and ninth segments, the elevated 
ridge darker grey than the rest ; in another week, 
when the length of seven -eighths of an inch was 
attained, a whitish narrow streak appeared over the 
crown of the head, and the ridge on the ninth segment 
became black, the rest of the body light greenish- 
grey with paler blotches as before ; on the 16th of 
May one of the two larvae fixed itself for a moult, but 
died on the 19th, unable to complete the operation. 
Meanwhile the remaining larva throve well, and by the 
21st had become one inch and three-eighths in length, 
the growth being rapid now, the colouring much as 
before, very lichenous in appearance ; the last moult 
occurred during the night of the 23rd, and the next 
morning I found it measure one inch and three- 
quarters in length, the general colouring a rather 
greener grey than at any previous stage ; even the 
whitish blotches were now faintly tinged with greenish- 
ochreous ; on the 26th it bad reached its full growth, 
when I took its third portrait, and a full description 
which follows presently ; on the 28th it was shorten- 
ing evidently, although continuing to feed at night till 
the 30th, when it had decreased considerably, and was 
irritable at the least disturbance, and on the 31st it re- 
tired amidst some sprays of oak, and entered a little 
way into some light soil beneath, where it formed a 
cocoon composed chiefly of small particles of dry stalks 
and roots with peat earth, and lined, as I afterwards 
found, with coarse whitish silk, disposed in very large 
meshes, yet smooth enough ; the upper surface being 
just level with the surrounding soil, and partly attached 



CATOOALA PROMISSA. 125 

to a stone I had placed there. The moth, a female, 
appeared on the 24th of July. 

The full-grown larva is two inches and one-eighth in 
length, the body thickest at the ninth and tenth seg- 
ments, tapering from thence a little gradually to the 
head, and a little more to the anal extremity ; the head 
rises a little on the crown, where the lobes are slightly 
denned, and is flattish in front ; there is a prominent 
ridge having a triangular hump on the back of the 
ninth segment, and a slight elevation occurs near the 
end of the twelfth, bearing the hinder pair of tubercles 
more sharply prominent than the rest ; the back is 
rounded, the belly flattened ; at the junction of the two 
surfaces just above the legs is a fringe of fleshy fila- 
ments, more or less branched, though a few simple 
ones occur amongst them ; the anterior pairs of tuber- 
cular warts on the back are small and unobtrusive, 
while the hinder pairs, and the single row along each 
side, are rather large and bluntly pyramidal, every one 
having a fine bristle ; the anterior and ventral legs 
extend laterally at right angles to the body, the anal 
pair also at an obtuse angle backwards, the third 
ventral pair long, and the fourth pair longest. The 
ground-colour is a light greenish-grey, with a distinct, 
large, pale patch of faint ochreous-greenish on the sides 
and back of the fifth, another on the ninth, and on the 
tenth less and less pale, strongly contrasted towards 
the division by a sooty transverse irregular baud ex- 
tending down either side from the blackish hump on 
the ninth to the back of the leg, from whence it spreads 
behind, at first broadly, then slants off to a point on 
the lower side of the tenth ; the end of the twelfth 
segment is a little darkened ; the head is light greenish- 
grey, reticulated with darker grey ; a transverse streak 
of black reticulation over the crown extends to the 
mouth, defining the boundary of the face ; behind this a 
shorter black streak marks the back of the cheeks ; the 
face itself is whitish, with a dark greyish streak on 
either side downwards to the mouth. The thoracic seg- 



126 CAT0CALA PROMISSA. 

ments are very much covered with freckles of lightish 
grey, dark grey, and black, some of them so disposed 
as to faintly indicate dorsal and subdorsal double lines ; 
on the fifth the back, though pale in front, is clouded 
behind, while on the sixth, seventh, eighth, and all be- 
yond the ninth it is rather uniformly covered with fine 
greenish-grey freckles, forming on each somewhat of a 
truncated diamond shape, each successively growing 
paler ; from the sixth to the end of the eighth these 
diamonds are relieved by the hinder pairs of whitish 
prominent warts, more or less ringed at their base with 
dark grey or black ; from these proceed backward to 
the segmental division short, dark greyish, double lines 
rather convergent, most strongly denned on the fifth, 
eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth; along the sides, 
from the end of each segment, is a broad-based, some- 
what wedge shape of the paler ground, flanked below 
by the lateral whitish wart, from whence a pale sinuous 
streak ascends a little obliquely forwards, finely and 
sharply edged below with black like the wart itself ; 
the dull red oval spiracle, outlined with black, comes 
close beneath in front of the wart ; the rest of the side 
is freckled to about the same appearance as the back; 
the fleshy filaments are pearly white ; the anterior legs 
pale, and ringed with dark greenish -grey ; the two 
first ventral pairs are whitish-grey, the third and fourth 
pairs greyish in front, darker greenish-grey behind, 
bearing a few black freckles, the anal pair similar; 
the belly is whitish, with a conspicuous blackish mark 
on the middle of each segment, viz. a transverse bar 
between each pair of the anterior legs, a largish round 
spot on the fifth and sixth segments, a very much 
larger spot on the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth ; 
on these two last they are elongated transversely to a 
diamond shape; the spot is round on the eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth, each smaller in the order men- 
tioned ; the skin of the head, back, and sides a little 
rough, the belly smoother, the filaments smooth. 
The pupa is nearly an inch in length by five- 



CATOCALA PROMISSA. 127 

sixteenths in diameter across the thorax, which is 
rounded and sloping smoothly to the head in a convex 
curve ; behind, on the back of the abdomen, is a slight 
depression, the wing-covers smooth, and from them 
the abdomen is full, but soon tapers rather sharply to 
the tip, which is rough and furnished with several 
converging, curled-topped spines ; the colour of the 
skin is purplish-brown, the abdominal divisions dingy 
red, though this local colouring can only be seen on 
parts that happen to be rubbed, as the surface 
generally is covered with a fine, opaque, powdery, 
bluish bloom ; a few short, fine, light brown, bristly 
hairs, pointing behind, are sparingly distributed over 
the abdomen. (W. B., December 2nd, 1876 ; E.M.M., 
XIII, 233, March, 1877.) 



Gatooala sponsa. 
Plate CV, fig. 2. 

In August, 1865, I captured at sugar a moth of 
this species, which proved to be a female, and she 
obligingly laid a few eggs on oak twigs and the sides 
and leno cover of her cage, after being fed for a fort- 
night with moistened sugar. 

The eggs were circular and - rather depressed, 
smooth and shining, olive-brown, some of them semi- 
transparent and mottled with darker brown, showing 
a whitish ring near the margin and a narrow blackish 
ring within it ; these last, as the sequel proved, were 
fertile, and the others barren. 

In April, 1866, the young larvse hatched just as the 
oak buds and blossoms began to appear and on which 
they fed, preferring the blossoms, though, after their 
second moult, they readily partook of the leaves. 

When first hatched they were blackish-brown, with 
a few paler blotches, long in proportion, looping with 
much activity in their progression, often standing 
erect on their anal legs with a tremulous motion of 



128 . OATOOALA SPONSA. 

the body, and, if touched, falling and wriggling in an 
excited manner. 

After the second moult they were of a very pale 
brown mottled with olive-greenish and brown, ex- 
hibiting decidedly the peculiarities of contour per- 
taining to larvse of the genus Catocala. 

In their early stages they were very restless for 
some time after being disturbed by changing their 
oak twigs, walking about their glass prison as if bent 
on escaping, but would at length settle down to their 
food ; in repose they were generally stretched out 
close to the surface of the twigs, and assimilated well 
with them ; as their size increased, so, in proportion, 
they became quieter, and at length even lethargic in 
their demeanour, each individual having a separate 
residence. On arriving at maturity they spun a loose 
kind of hammock amongst the oak leaves, and therein 
changed to pupas of a purplish-red colour, covered 
with a delicate violet bloom. The moths appeared 
towards the end of July. 

The full-grown larva, when stretched out, measures 
two inches or two inches and a half in length ; its walk 
is a half-looping motion, sometimes retaining that 
posture in feeding, though generally it closely em- 
braces the twig, its body being extended and its head 
erected to the edge of a leaf. 

In form it is rounded above and flattened beneath, 
and tapering towards each extremity. The head is 
broad, rounded, slightly elevated, and indented on the 
crown, and is a trifle larger than the second segment. 
There is a transverse dorsal hump on the ninth 
segment, and the twelfth also appears slightly humped, 
but the thirteenth is much depressed. The thoracic 
segments are deeply wrinkled, the others plump and 
deeply indented at the divisions. 

Tubercles conical, and terminating in a very short 
spiky bristle, six on each segment, viz. two lateral 
and four dorsal, the hinder dorsal pairs being much 
the largest. 



OATOOALA SPONSA. 129 

In colour the head is of a deep dull red, brighter 
on the face ; the edge of the crown bordered with 
black, and edged beneath in the centre with pale 
ochreous, and on each side, just below this, a black 
spot. The thoracic segments much suffused with 
greyish-brown; tubercles and markings rather in- 
distinct. 

The ground-colour of the body is pale ochreous, 
pale brownish, or greyish-ochreous ; a large bright 
pale ochreous patch on the fifth segment, occupying 
its anterior dorsal surface, and extending a little down 
each side of it. There is a purplish-brown or grey 
blotch transversely suffused on the hinder part of the 
ninth and beginning of the tenth segments, and 
following on the latter a paler patch. A similar dark 
blotch on the chief portion anteriorly of the twelfth 
segment. The dorsal and subdorsal stripes purplish- 
brown or brownish-grey, with a narrow line of pale 
ground-colour between them ; the subdorsal stripes 
have the tubercles placed thereon, and the stripes 
widen round the bases of the tubercles. There are 
two similar lateral stripes, the lowest not very dis- 
tinct, owing to the aggregation of dark atoms along 
the sides, all the stripes being composed of minute 
spots. 

Sometimes faint indications occur of greyish trans- 
verse bands on the sixth, seventh, and eighth segments. 
Tubercles deep glossy red posteriorly and black an- 
teriorly, but sometimes all are black except those 
on the twelfth segment. Spiracles dirty whitish or 
brownish, margined with dark brown. Filaments 
pinkish-grey. The ridge of the hump on the ninth 
segment has generally a very pale blotch of the 
ground-colour, divided by a narrow transverse black 
mark between the tubercles. Belly pale greyish with 
dark red spots. (W. B., 1867; E.M.M., May, 1867, 
III, 276.) 



VOL. VI. 9 



130 EUOLIDIA MI. 

EUOLIDIA MI. 

Plate CV, fig. 3. 

A moth of this species, taken on the 5th of June, 
1886, at the Green Farm Wood, Doncaster, deposited 
eggs which were globular in shape, the colour a dull 
pale green. They hatched about the 28th of the same 
month, and the young larvse were dingy green with 
large yellowish-brown heads; when walking they looped 
the back in the same way as does a geometer, and 
when disturbed at once rolled themselves up and 
feigned death. They fed well on grass and common 
white clover, and by the 22nd of July were slender 
creatures of about five- eighths of an inch long, with 
only six ventral legs, and consequently were veri- 
table " loopers," arching the back as much as any 
geometer. On the 7th of August, when they were 
almost an inch long, I described them as follows : 

Very slender ; head wider and deeper than the second 
segment, the lobes evenly rounded ; body of nearly 
uniform width throughout, rounded above, slightly 
flattened ventrally ; skin smooth, the segmental divi- 
sions clearly defined, but not deeply cut ; there are 
only three pairs of ventral legs, on the ninth, tenth, 
and thirteenth segments respectively ; the last pair, 
when at rest, being stretched backwards and outwards, 
give the appearance of a notched anal prominence. 
Ground-colour generally dingy pale olive-green, in 
some specimens, however, bright greenish-yellow ; on 
it is a pretty ornamentation of chocolate-brown stripes 
as follows :— First, a narrow and interrupted medio- 
dorsal, then a double and more clearly defined one, 
followed below at about the same distance by another 
double stripe ; then follows a broader one, and imme- 
diately adjoining it is the broad and conspicuous 
lemon-coloured spiracular stripe ; all these stripes 
extend in strong relief through the head. The ventral 
surface has a somewhat similar but not so clearly 



EUCLIDIA MI. 131 

defined ornamentation ; the ground-colour being as 
on the dorsal area, and having a central, then a 
double, followed by another double line, all of choco- 
late-brown. 

The habits, perfect manner of looping the back 
when walking, feeding, and everything else are ex- 
actly as in a geometer ; and were it not for the 
additional pair of ventral legs it would be impossible 
to separate it from a geometer. 

The adult larva I described on the 6th of September 
as follows : 

Length about one and a half inches, and, although 
still rather slender, is considerably stouter in propor- 
tion than when last described ; head larger and slightly 
wider than the second segment ; body cylindrical above, 
a little flatter ventrally ; it is of nearly uniform width 
to the ninth segment, but this and the tenth are a 
little wider ; from the tenth it tapers more strongly 
to the anal extremity ; skin smooth, the segmental 
divisions clearly defined but not deeply cut, and there 
is a very slight rather puckered ridge along the 
spiracular region ; there are only three pairs of ventral 
legs, on the ninth, tenth, and thirteenth segments 
respectively ; the last pair, when at rest, are stretched 
backwards and outwards, and give the appearance 
of being a notched anal prominence. Ground-colour 
bright lemon-yellow, some specimens having an ochre- 
ous tinge ; the same pretty ornamentation of stripes 
still remains, as follows : — First, a fine double and 
rather irregular pale chocolate-coloured medio-dorsal, 
followed by two broader and darker chocolate, then 
two more equally broad ones of the paler chocolate, 
followed by a narrow one of a darker shade of the 
same colour, and closely followed by a still darker one 
immediately edging the pale, bright, lemon-yellow, 
broad, spiracular stripe ; these stripes extend in strong 
relief through the head down to the mandibles, and 
the whole ornamentation, taken with the ground- 
colour, forms a series of alternately chocolate-brown 



132 ETJCLIDIA MI. 

and lemon-yellow stripes. The ventral area is less 
distinctly marked than when ]ast described ; the 
ground is greyish-yellow in the centre, rust-colour 
at the sides, with double interrupted chocolate central 
stripe ; at the sides are two other similarly coloured 
stripes, the outer edge of the last being close to the 
broad spiracular stripe; legs and prolegs greyish- 
yellow, the latter marked on the outside with rust- 
colour. 

Manner of feeding, walking, etc., just as when last 
described. The last two larvae went down on the 21st 
of September, but no imagines afterwards emerged 
from any of them. (Geo. T. Porritt, May 9th, 1888 ; 
E.M.M., June, 1888, XXV, 13.) 



EUCLIDIA GLYPHICA. 

Plate OV, fig. 4. 

On July 2nd, 1878, I received a good supply of 
eggs, together with the parent moth, of this species 
from Mr. Blackall of Folkestone. 

The eggs were globular, and distinctly ribbed from 
the summit to the base ; when first deposited they 
were bright pea-green, but soon changed to dull 
green, with, on the crown, a large brown blotch, and 
below this blotch a ring of the same colour. They 
began to hatch on the 10th of the same month, but 
the young larvae were not all out before the 13th. 

The newly-emerged caterpillar looks large for the 
size of the egg 9 being about three- sixteenths of an 
inch long, is very lively, and when walking arches its 
back like that of a geometer. Colour a dingy semi- 
transparent pale green, barred with dark brown, or 
nearly black ; head pale wainscot-brown and polished ; 
and there are rather long hairs scattered over the 
body. 

They fed up well and rapidly on both the white and 
red species of clover, and when from an inch to an 



EUOLIDIA GLYPHIOA. 133 

inch and a quarter in length I described them as 
follows : 

Long and slender for the size of the moth ; body 
evenly rounded above, flattened below, tapering a little 
at the extremities ; the head has the lobes rounded, 
and is a little wider than the second segment; skin 
smooth but not polished ; segmental divisions well 
defined ; the anal prolegs extend beyond the fold, 
and form a distinct angle. By this time they have 
lost the true looper style of walking, but are still 
half-loopers, having no prolegs on the seventh, eighth, 
eleventh, and twelfth segments. The ground-colour 
varies from pale salmon to dull pink, some specimens 
having a strong yellowish tinge ; a distinct double 
yellow line, enclosing another very fine still paler line, 
forms the dorsal stripe ; the anterior point of the pale 
line on the crown of the head forms the apex of a 
triangular mark, the base of which is over the man- 
dibles ; the rest of the head is very dark brown ; the 
subdorsal lines are dull bluish, bordered with smoke- 
colour, and enclose fine pale greyish lines ; below the 
spiracular stripe is another irregular greyish line, and 
below this, but above the spiracles, is another line of 
pale bluish, edged with smoke-colour; the spiracular 
stripes are yellow, rust-colour, or pink, in different 
specimens. The colours, indeed, vary considerably in 
different examples, in some the blue side-stripes being 
scarcely discernible; spiracles black, as are also the 
tubercular dots, which, though small, can be distinctly 
seen with a lens. Yentral surface dull dark smoky- 
purple, with two yellow central lines. 

Most of the larvae were full-grown by August 7th. 
Length an inch and three quarters, and the salmon 
and pink colours of the younger specimens altogether 
lost. The ground is now of various shades of 
ochreous-yellow, the darker specimens having a strong 
rust tinge along the sides ; head of various shades of 
brown, in some being of a dark sienna colour ; in all 
there is the pale yellow front triangular mark so 



134 EUCL1DIA GLYPHICA. 

noticeable in the earlier stage, and there is also 
another distinct streak of yellow on the side of each 
lobe ; a brown stripe enclosing a very fine yellow line, 
and broadly edged outwardly with yellow, forms the 
dorsal stripe ; a double smoke-coloured line composes 
the subdorsal stripe, and between it and the dorsal 
stripe are two other irregular yellow lines ; above tbe 
spiracles is a yellow line edged on each side with 
smoke-colour, and between it and the subdorsal stripe 
another irregular yellow line ; spiracles and tubercular 
dots black. 

Ventral surface of various shades of dull ochreous, 
with two greyish central lines ; a black mark on the 
seventh and eighth segments, and a smoke-coloured 
stripe below the spiracles. 

Feeds during the night ; in the daytime remains 
extended at full length, flat along the stalks of the 
food-plant. 

The cocoon is composed of bits of the food-plant 
firmly knitted together with very closely woven silk ; 
in a state of nature, however, it would probably be on 
the ground. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, and 
of the ordinary shape, though rather blunt and dumpy ; 
colour deep purplish-brown, with the abdominal divi- 
sions and spiracles still darker ; it is powdered over 
with a very pretty violet bloom, though more so on 
the head, thorax, and wing-cases than elsewhere. 

From these larvas I reared a long and beautiful 
series of imagos the following June. (Geo. T. Porritt, 
January 8th, 1881 ; B.M.M., February, 1881, XVII, 
210.) 



Phttometea ^enea. 

Plate CV, fig. 5. 

On July 30th, 1865, I received a batch of eggs from 
Dr. Knaggs. These were of the ordinary Noctua form, 



PHYTOMETEA MKEA. 135 

rounded, ribbed, and with flat under- side ; in colour 
they were by that time a dull purplish-brown. On 
August 5th the larvae began to emerge, little trans- 
lucent almost colourless loopers to look at, but luckily 
they did not all come out at once, otherwise I should 
have had little to say about them ; I tried them with 
every plant I could think of, but at first with no 
success, and by far the greater part of them had died 
of starvation, when luckily it came into my mind that 
the very last specimen of the moth which I had cap- 
tured myself was flying over or near some plants of 
milkwort (Polygala vulgaris) ; a little bit of this plant, 
therefore, was put in amongst the other twigs and 
leaves, and in a short time, to my great delight, the 
five surviving larvae had all found it out, and were 
eating it very freely. They soon began to show an 
increase in size, and turned pale green in colour, and 
although looping very much, it was easy to see that 
they had two pairs of ventral legs. I noticed that 
whilst they were small their tint depended on the part 
of the plant they ate, the blue flowers (I could find no 
pink ones) causing them to appear of a dark bluish- 
green. 

In the first week of September they attained their 
full growth, and were then an inch long, slender if 
compared with other Noctua larvae, but moderately 
stout for loopers ; uniform in width when viewed from 
above, but when seen sideways cylindrical in the 
middle segments, and flatter towards the head and 
tail ; the skin smooth ; the head round ; legs twelve, 
the ventral pairs being on segments nine and ten, and 
rudiments of another pair, too small for use, on the 
eighth. 

The colour is a velvety full green, scarcely paler on 
the belly ; the head mottled with faint brown ; a hasty 
inspection would scarcely detect any lines, but on 
looking closely the dorsal vessel appears as a darker 
green thread, bordered with paler lines, between which 
and the spiracles come three pale subdorsal lines ; the 



136 PHYTOMETRA J3NEA. 

spiracles yellowish, below them a broader pale line, 
which on segments ten to thirteen becomes whitish. 
The segmental folds yellow, the usual dots very small, 
black, surrounded with light rings, and emitting small 
bristles. 

When full-grown their walk is semi-looping, and 
they rest extended straight and flat on the stems of 
their food ; if disturbed they drop off, and fling them- 
selves about angrily. About September 10th they 
began to contract in length and to grow pale, and in 
a day or two spun themselves up in very tight-fitting 
little cocoons of close- woven grey silk, wrapped about 
with some of the leaves and stems of their food. 

I have no doubt that in this case it is no substitute 
food, but the natural one which I have been lucky 
enough to discover. (John Hellins, October 5th, 1865, 
E.M.M., December, 1865, II, 163.) 

At p. 163 of the second volume of the ' Ent. Mo. 
Mag. ' I gave a description of the larva of this species, 
with some notes on the egg and cocoon, which I wish 
now to amend and enlarge. 

On June 19th, 1873, I obtained three or four eggs 
from a moth which I had shut up in a glass cylinder 
with sprigs of milkwort ; however, she chose to de- 
posit only on the leno covering. On examining these 
eggs with an inch object-glass, I found that they did 
not correspond with the short description I had given 
in 1865, and fancied I had somehow got hold of 
another species, but in due time the larva appeared, 
and looked and behaved so exactly like the former 
brood, that I became quite satisfied that my puzzle 
arose from my not having examined the eggs formerly 
so minutely as I had now done. They had then come 
to me not long before the hatching of the larvse ; I 
must have looked at them with a lens of low power, 
and so missed their true structure. 

I find the egg, then, is of the usual Noctua shape, 
somewhat flattened, the apex occupied by a small round 
patch of tiny irregular network; all the rest of the 



PHYTOMETRA ^NBA. 137 

shell, down to the flat under surface, covered with a 
most beautifully regular three-cornered reticulation, so 
exactly designed that, wherever the eye rests, it in- 
voluntarily forms hexagons out of half-dozens of the 
triangles. Each of the knots at the angles of the net- 
work is furnished with a comparatively longish curved 
spine ; the colour of the shell is whitish, mottled with 
long blotches of pale pink, which are disposed hori- 
zontally round the egg; the lines of triangular net- 
work are pink, the spines pink with brown tips. A 
short time before the larva is hatched the egg becomes 
purplish all over. 

To the present date this is the most remarkable egg 
I have seen, and whilst contemplating its spiny orna- 
mentation one cannot help being reminded of old 
Gilbert White's remarks on the parturition of hedge- 
hogs ! (Letter xxxi, to Thos. Pennant, Esq.). 

Of the larva I have nothiug fresh now to say. 

The cocoon, made of a tough texture of greyish- 
white silk, is not quite half an inch long, and about 
three-sixteenths of an inch wide, with a few outside 
threads to draw round the surrounding leaves, etc. 
The pupa is nearly three-eighths of an inch long, 
cylindrical, slender, and remarkably even in bulk 
throughout (reminding one in this respect of the pupa 
of an Hepialus), blunt at the head, the abdominal 
rings deeply cut, the last segment alone tapering, and 
ending in a blunt tip with two extremely short blunt 
spikes ; the colour on the head and wing-cases a rich 
olive-tinted brown, on the rest of the body a bright 
reddish-brown ; the skin rather glossy. (John Hellins, 
September 20th, 1873 ; E.M.M., November, 1873, 
X, 139.) 



VOL* VI* ]Q 



138 



PARASITES. 



The following list of parasites, bred from the larvge 
or pupae of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. Gr. C. Bignell, 
F.E.S.— G. T. P. 




Dianthsecia irregu- 
laris 



D. carpophaga 
D. capsincola 



D. cucubali 



Hecatera serena 



Polia chi 

P. flavocincta 



Epunda viminali 



E. lichenea 

Miselia oxyacanthse 



Phlogophora 
losa 



meticu- 



Paeasite. 



Ichneumon xanthorius Forster 

Ophion distans Thorns 

Limneria ruficincta Grav. . . 

Apanteles sericeus Nees 

Ichneumon bisignatus Grav. 
Amblyteles castigator Fab. ... 

Eurylabus tristis Grav 

Cryptus obscurus Grav 

Ophion luteum L. 



Agrypon tenuicorne Grav. 
Paniscus testaceus Grav. . 

P. cephalotes Holmg 

Apanteles sericeu? Nees .. 
Microplitis spectabilis Halid. 

M. tristis Nees 

Hemiteles furcatus Tasch. 

Ophion luteum L 

Limneria ruficincta Grav. 
Pimpla brevicornis Grav. . 
Apanteles sericeus Nees.. . 
Microplitis tristis Nees .... 
Henicospilus merdarius Grav. 
Sagaritis zonata Grav 

Limneria ruficincta Grav. ] 

f Microplitis mediana Ruthe ... 
Microplitis mediana Ruthe ... 

*Exorista vulgaris Fallen 

*E. parens Reinh. 

Limneria exareolata Ratz. . . , 

Apanteles cleocerdis Marsh. ( 

(MS.) i 

Microgaster minutus Reinh 

Ophion obscurum Fab 

0. luteum L 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Ascogaster rufidens Wesm. . . . 

Exorista vulgaris Fallen 

* Dipteron. 

f Young 1 larva before third moult. 

(MS.) Not yet described. 



By whom bred. 



Mrs. Hutchinson, 

G. 0. Bignell. 
Mrs. Hutchinson, 
Mrs. Hutchinson 

C. S. Gregson. 
G. Elisha. 

B. A. Bower. 

H. D'Orville. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

H. W. Barker. 

T. A. Marshall. 

— . Neville. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

H. W. Barker. 

H. W. Barker. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

H. D'Orville. 
W. West. 

G. 0. Bignell. 
T. A. Marshall. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

B. A. Bower. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

J. P. Cregoe. 
Miss N. P. Decie 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 
W. Mansbridge. 

B. A. Bower. 

G. Rose. 

W. Mansbridge. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

T. R. Billups. 

E. A. Fitch. 



PARASITES. 



139 




Aplecta nebulosa 



Hadena adusta. 

H. protea 

H. dentina 

H. chenopodii . 



H. oleracea 



H. 



pist 



Pabasite. 



Amblyteles oratorius Fab.... 

Spathius exarator L 

Apanteles (sp. undescribed) 
Ichneumon fabricator Fab. 

Ophion obscurum Fab 

Paniscus testaceus Grav. . . . 
Paniscus testaceus Grav. . . . 

Pimpla instigator Fab 

Ichneumon fabricator Fab. 
Amblyteles castigator Fab. 
Exetastes osculatorius Fab. 
Henicospilus ramidulus L. 
H. repentinus Holmg 



H. thalassina 

Xylocampa lithorhiza 
Xylina rhizolitha 



Cucullia verbasci, 



C. gnaphalii. 



C. chamomillse 



Heliothis dipsacea 



Ophion luteum L. 



{ 



By whom bred. 



Anarta myrtilli 



Paniscus testaceus Grav. 

Apanteles congestus Nees 

A. difficilis Nees 

*Gonia ornata Meig 

Cryptus obscurus Grav 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Paniscus testaceus Grav 

%Mesochorus formosus Bridgm. 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Mesochorus vitticollis Holmg. 

Amblyteles palliatorius Grav. 

Ophion longigenum Thorns. ... 

Casinaria mesozosta Grav. . . . 
fLimneria fenestralis Holmg. 

Exetastes osculatorius Fab. ... 

Hhogas circumscriptus N ees .. . 
f Apanteles ruficrus Halid 

A. fulvipes Halid 

Microplitis vidua Ruthe 

M. mediana Ruthe ] 

M. tuberculifera Wesm 

Limner ia ensator Grav 

Macrocentrus linearis Fab. . . . 
JRhogas circumscriptus Nees . . . 

Apanteles ruficrus Halid 

Anomalon cerinops Grav 

Schizopyga circulator Pz 

Limneria 



ruficincta Grav. < 

Meteorus deceptor Wesm. 

M. pulchricornis Wesm , 

* Dipteron. 

f From young larvae four to six lines in length. 

j Hyperparasite on Apanteles fulvipes. 



G. 0. Bignell. 

ft. South. 
T. A. Chapman 

J. Sang. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 

0. Fenn. 
H. W. Barker. 

0. Fenn. 

R. South. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 

— . Lowry. 

H. Marsh. 
T. A. Marshall. 
J. R. Wellman. 

H. Marsh. 

0. H. H. Walker. 

G. C. Bignell. 

A. Short. 

J. Sang. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
T. R. Billups. 
B. A. Bower. 

R. Adkin. 

H. W. Barker. 

H. W. Barker. 

W.H.B. Fletcher. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

J. N. Still. 

T. R. Billups. 

T. A. Marshall. 

J. H. Wood. 

G. C. Bignell. 

W. H. Tugwell. 

W. H. Tugwell. 

- J. N. Still. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

R. Adkin. 

R. Adkin. 

G. C. Bignell. 

H. W. Barker. 

Mrs. Hutchinson. 

R. W. Bowyer. 



140 



PAEASITES. 



Host. 



Brephos parthenias 

B. notha 

Plusia orichalcea 
PL chrysitis 

PL festucse 

PL iota 

PL gamma 



PL interrogationis 

Amphipyra pyra- 
midea 

Mania hjpica 



Toxocampa craccse 



Catocala nupta 



Paeasite. 



Bhogas bicolor Spin. 

Meteorus versicolor Wesm. 
Limneria geniculata Grav. 
8 agar itis punctata Bridgm. 
Hemiteles fulvipes Grav. .. 
Apanteles pallidipes Reinh. 
Meteorus versicolor Wesm. 
Pimpla graminellse Schrank 
*Nemorxa notabilis Meig. . . 
Tryphon elongator Fab. . . 
Apanteles pallidipes Reinh 
Agrypon tenuicorne Grav. 
Sagaritis zonata Grav 



Apanteles pallidipes Reinh. 

*Exorista vulgaris Fallen .... 
Limneria crassicornis Grav. . . . 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

Apanteles fulvipes Halid 

A . triangulator Wesm j 

Ichneumon saturatorius L. ... 

I. lepidus Grav 

Amblyteles litigiosus Grav. . . , 
Sagaritis laticollis Holmg. .., 

^Exorista vulgaris Fallen 

Henicospilus ramidulus L. ... 

Ophion luteum L 

Phytodiaetus segmentator 

Grav. 
Apanteles fulvipes Halid 



By whom bred. 



0. Fenn. 

C. Fenn. 

R. Adkin. 

W. Cross. 

Y. R. Perkins. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

J. H. Carpenter. 

W. J. Cross. 

J. R. Wellman. 

R. South. 

G. C. Bignell. 

H. W. Barker. 

T. R. Bilhips. 

G. C. Bignell. 

E. A. Fitch. 

J. E. Fletcher. 

W.H.B. Fletcher. 

W.H.B. Fletcher, 

W. Fletcher. 

W.F.de V.Kane, 

G. C. Bignell. 

J. Hellins. 

T. A. Chapman. 

W. Mansbridge. 

W. Mansbridge. 

W. Mansbridge. 

G. C. Bignell. 

W. Mansbridge. 

R. South. 

R. South. 

R. South. 

G. C. Bignell. 



* Dipteron. 



INDEX. 



Adusta, Hadena 
Ad vena, Aplecta . 
iEnea, Phytometra 
Albimacula, Dianthaecia 
Anomala, Stilbia . 
Aprilina, Agriopis . 
Arbuti, Heliodes . 
Armigera, Heliothis 

Bankiana, Bankia . 
Barrettii, Dianthaacia 
Bractea, Plusia 

Osesia, Dianthaicia . 
Chi, Polia 
Conformis, Xylina . 
Cordigera, Anarta . 
CraccaB, Toxocampa 

Dentin a, Hadena . 
Dipsacea, Heliothis 

Empyrea, Phlogophora 

Flavocincta, Polia . 
Fraxini, Catocala . 
Furcifera, Xylina . 
Fuscula, Erastria . 

Gamma, Plusia 
Genistae, Hadena . 
Glyphica, Euclidia . 
Gnaphalii, Cucullia 

Herbida, Aplecta . 

Interrogations, Plusia 
Iota, Plusia 
Irregularis, Dianthaecia 



PAGE 

47 
45 

134 
3 

118 
30 
83 
73 

94 

9 

103 

6 

15 

63 

80 

117 

50 

75 

34 

17 

119 

63 

92 

112 

55 

132 

69 

36 

115 

107 

13 





PAGE 


Luctuosa, Acontia . 


. 90 


Lutulenta, Epunda 


. 24 


Melanopa, Anarta . 


. 78 


Meticulosa, Phlogophori 


i . 30 


Mi, Euclidia . 


. 130 


Nigra, Epunda 


. 27 


Mgrocincta, Polia . 


. 18 


Notha, Brephos 


. 98 


Nupta, Catocala 


. 121 


Occulta, Aplecta . 


. 39 


Ochroleuca, Eremobia 


. 1 


Orichalcea, Plusia . 


. 100 


Promissa, Catocala 


. 121 


Protea, Hadena 


. 48 


Pulchrina, Plusia . 


. 110 


Rectilinea, Hadena 


. 56 


Rhizolitha, Xylina . 


. 60 


Scrophulariae, Cucullia 


. 68 


Semibrunnea, Xylina 


. 62 


Solidaginis, Cloantha 


. 58 


Sponsa, Catocala . 


. 127 


Suasa, Hadena 


. 52 


Sulphuralis, Agrophila 


. 89 


Templi, Dasypolia . 


. 19 


Thalassina, Hadena 


. 53 


Tincta, Aplecta 


. 44 


Umbra tica, Cucullia 


. 71 


Uncana, Hydrelia . 


. 96 


Verbasci, Cucullia . 


. 67 



YOL, VI, 



n 



PLATE LXXXVII. 

Eremobia oohroleuoa. 

1, 1 a, larvse after last moult; on panicles of 
Dactylis glomerata in chalk-pits, July 2nd ; imago 
emerged July 30th, 1870 ; also on Avena strigosa and 
A.fatua, July 2nd, 1875. See pp. 1 — 3. 

DlANTH^lCIA OAEPOPHAGA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvas after last moult ; on Silene mari- 
tima, July 14th, 1864; others (two) on same plant, 
September 15th, 1862; imagos emerging June 30th 
and July 12th, 1863. 

DlANTH^EOIA GMSIA. 

3, 3 a, 3 &, larvse after last moult ; 3, on Silene 
maritima, July 31st, 1869; 3 a, on the same plant, 
August 9th, 1869; imagos emerged July 16th and 
31st, 1869 ; 3 6, on the leaves and flowers but chiefly 
on the seeds of Silene inflata, from the Isle of Man, 
July 15th, 1867. See pp. 6—8. 

DlANTH^lOIA IRREGULARIS. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on flowers and seeds of Silene otites, August 20th, 
1869, August 5th and 15th, 1870. See pp. 13, 14. 

DlANTH^SOIA BARRETTII = LUPERINA LUTEAGO Gn. 

5, larva after last moult; in root of Silene maritima, 
September 13th, 1878, pupated September 17th; ? 
moth bred June 27th, 1879. See pp. 9—13. 

DlANTELECIA CAPSINCOLA. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after last moult ; on seeds of Silene 
inflata and of Lychnis diurna, October 7th, 1862; on 
Lychnis diurna, July 18th, 1864; August 5th, 1864, 
imagos emerging June 14th, 1865 ; also July 4th, 
1859, and September 2nd to 12th, 1863. 

DlANTH^lOIA CUOUBALI. 

7, 7 a, 7 b 9 larvse after last moult ; on leaves of 
Silene inflata, July 11th, 1859, July 28th, 1861, and 
July 12th to 18th, 1864. 



Plate LXXXVII. 



- f> 



f 




EC. "Moore Hth 



W BUCKLER He.1. 



PLATE LXXXVIIX. 

Heoatera dysodea. 

1, la, lb, 1 c, larvsD after last moult ; on flowers 
and seeds of lettuce, August 31st, 1866. 

Heoatera serena. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2d, 2 e, larvae after last moult ; 2, 
on flowers of Grepis taraxifolia, August 30th, 1872 ; 
2 e, August 7th, 1865, imago emerging July 10th, 
1866; 2 a, August 5th, 1865, imago July 8th, 1866; 
one or more of the others on flowers and seeds of 
Grepis taraxifolia, August 1st, 1864, and on flowers 
and seeds of lettuce, August 19th, 1864, imago 
emerging July 1st, 1865. 

Polia OHI. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvse after last moult ; on willow, June 
10th, 1861, imago August 10th, 1861 ; on hawthorn 
and sallow, May 10th, 1862 ; and on sallow, May 27th, 
1870. See pp'. 15—17. 

POLIA ELAVOOINCTA. 

4, young larva ; 4 a, 4 b, larva3 after last moult ; 
4 and 4&, on rest-harrow, June 18th and 25th, 1863 ; 
4 a, on grass, wild mint, scabious, apricot leaves, 
sweet-peas, July 4th, 1868. See pp. 17, 18. 

POLIA NIGROOINOTA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvsD in various stages of growth ; on 
flowers of Statice armeria and of Silene maritima, Isle 
of Man, July 12th, 1869, and eating unripe seeds of 
Plantago maritima, Douglas, Isle of Man, July 13th 
and 14th, 1876. See pp. 18, 19. 



Plate LXXHIII. 




ub 

F.C.Moore Tith 



W. BUCKLER duel. 



West.Newman imp. 



PLATE LXXXIX. 

Dasypolia templi. 

1, 2, 3, 4, larvae in various stages of growth ; 5, 
pupa ; figured July 11th, in the stem of Heracleum 
splwndylium ; July 20th in the root-crown ; July 26th 
in the hole shown in the plate. See pp. 19 — 24. 



Plate LXXXK 











P.C.Moore litb. 



W BUCKLER cZeL. 



We sb,"Newm a-n. imp. 



Plate XC 




E.G.Mboielith. 



W.BUCKLEE del. 



"Weet,liTewinaxL imp. 



PLATE XC. 

Epunda lutulenta. 

1, 1 a 9 1 b, 1 c, 1 d 9 larvae in various stages ; 1 c, on 
heather and grass, June 19th, 1869 ; 1 d 9 on plantain, 
April 22nd, 1874 ; the others on grass, February 20th, 
May 8th and 20th, and June 1st, 1869. See pp. 24—27. 

Epunda nigra. 

2, 2 a, 2 b 9 2 c 9 2 d, larvae in various stages ; 2, April 
30th, when grown became like 2 b ; 2 b, on hawthorn, 
May 12th, 1866; 2 a, from Torquay, May 5, imago 
October 14th, 1856 ; 2 c, on hawthorn and Galium, 
April 28th, imago, October 28th, 1866 ; 2 d 9 on haw- 
thorn, May 5th, 1866 ; other examples drawn but not 
reproduced here, on sloe, would eat sallow, hawthorn, 
and grass, April 22nd, 1866. See pp. 27 — 30. 

Epunda viminalis. 

3, 3 a, 3 b 9 3 c, larvae in various stages ; 3, 3 a, 3 c 9 
on sallow, May 21st, imago July 14th, 1867 ; 3 b, on 
long-leaved sallow, June 3rd, imago July 13th, 1864; 
specimens not figured, on withy, June 27th, 1860, and 
on sallow, June 6th, imago July 10th, 1863. 

Epunda lichenea. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; 4 b, on haw- 
thorn, April 21st, imago October 27th, 1866; the 
others on groundsel and dock, etc., April 5th, 1860; 
an example not figured, on groundsel, April 6th, imago 
emerging October 16th, 1868. 



PLATE XCI. 

MlSBLIA OXYACANTH^]. 

1, 1 a> 1 b 9 1 c, larvae in various stages ; 1, June 7th, 
1859, imago emerging October 5th, 1859 ; 1 a, figured 
June 6th, 1860; 1 b, June 8th, 1866 ; 1 c 9 June 7th, 
1860. 

Agriopis aprilina. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult ; found in crevice of 
bark on oak, May 27th, imago emerging September 
25th, 1861 ; and on oak June 15th, 1861. See p. 30. 

Phlogophora meticulosa. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, 3/, 3g, larvae in various 
stages; 3, on blackthorn; 3 a, figured March 1st, 
1862 ; 3/, on flowers of chrysanthemum, January 17th, 
1868 ; 3 g, variety, August 5th, imago September 
25th, 1859 ; two of the others on dock, July 11th, 
imago emerging August 11th, 1864 ; and on geranium 
leaves, November 5th, 1867. See pp. 30 — 33. 

Phlogophora empyrea. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult ; reared from the egg 
on Ranunculus repens and B. ficaria, March 21st to 
24th, 1874. 

EUPLEXIA LUOIPARA. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult ; 5 a, on fern and 
sallow, September 12th, 1863 ; 5, on fern, August 17th, 
1878; an example not figured on sallow, August 24th, 
1861, imago emerging June 1st, 1862. 



PLsubeXCI. 




P. C, Moore lifch., 



W.BUCKI^TEL d.&L. 



We S t/Newmaja. imp . 



Plate XC1I. 




KCjVloore lith. 



r V. BUGKLER.tfei. 



West, Newman, irap . 



PLATE XCII. 

Apleota herbida. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
October to April, on dock, nettle, chickweed, sallow 
buds, and grass ; March 12th, imago May 24th, 1862 ; 
1 a, on Plantago major, reared from a quarter of an 
inch long, figured 25th November, 1875, pupa figured 
5th February, 1876 ; imago appeared June 19th, 1876. 
See pp. 36—39. 

Apleota occulta. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2d, 2e, larvae in various stages of 

growth ; from eggs reared on knot-grass and dock, 

October 16th, 27th, November 1st, 1869, February 

28th, March 1st, 1870 ; 2, small one figured before 

hybernating, from heather, Ross- shire, 6th October, 

1868; 2 c and 2e, on heather and dock, sallow and 

bramble, May 1st and 5th, 1869 ; another figured 

October 7th and 10th; another figured as pupa on 

September 30th, 1874; imagos emerged October 13th 

to December 22nd, 1874. See pp. 39—43. 

i 

Apleota nebulosa. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages ; on thorn and 
bramble, 1861 ; on sallow, April 1st and 20th, imago 
appearing June 9th ; on wild cherry, April 28th, 
1864; 3, on hawthorn buds, March 28th, 1868. 

Apleota tincta. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae in various stages ; 4, one reared 
from egg, figured in third moult, September 10th, 
1874, fed on knot-grass and birch ; 4 a, 4 6, on birch 
and dock, April 26th ; on hawthorn, May 5th, imagos 
appearing June 19th and 21st, 1862. See pp. 44, 45. 

Apleota advena. 

5, ha, larvae in various stages ; on knot-grass, July 
26th and September 1st, 1865. See pp. 45—47. 



PLATE XCIII. 

H ADEN A ADTJSTA. 

1, 1 a, lb, 1 c 9 Id, larvae in various stages; reared 
on lettuce, October 19th, 1860; reared from the egg 
on lettuce, and figured August 22nd, 1863 ; la, on 
knot-grass, sallow, and hawthorn, September 15th, 
1865 ; 1 b, September 11th, 1869 ; 1 d, on Sileneinflata, 
October 11th, 1878. See pp. 47, 48. 

Hadena peotea. 

2, 2a, larvse after last moult; 2, on oak, May 18th, 
1867, imago September 5th, 1867 ; 2 a, reared from 
the egg on oak, June 2nd, imago September 7th, 1883. 
See pp. 48, 49. 

Hadena glauca. 

3,3 a, larvae in various stages ; 3, on tops of weep- 
ing willow, July 30th, 1860 ; 3 a, found and reared on 
sallow, figured July 18th, 1860, imago appearing June, 
1861. 

Hadena dentina. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages, figured from 
August 3rd to 19th, 1863 ; reared on flower-heads of 
dandelion and plantain ; imagos appeared July 10th to 
14th, 1864. See pp. 50—52. 

Hadena ohenopodii. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c 9 5 d, larvaB after last moult ; figured 
September 16th, 1860, imagos appearing July 15th and 
19th, 1861 ; and figured on August 17th and 24th, 1861, 
from larvaB fed on Chenop odium botryoides and Atrijolex 
jpatula. 



Plate XG111. 




F.C.Koore Ixth. 



"W .BUCKLER d&L. 



Westj'Ne-wiD.acn. imp . 



PlateXCIV. 




■F.C.Mooi?e H+Il 



WBUGKLER del 



~VF■>8t2$v^fzman xmp. 



PLATE XCIV. 



Hadena atriplicis. 



1, 1 a, 1 b, lc,ld, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on knot-grass and persicaria ; figured July 31st, 
August 4th, 6th, 8th, and 16th, 1873 ; imagos emerged 
June 16th and 20th, 1874. 

Hadena suasa. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult ; on Plantago 
major and knot-grass ; figured July 18th and 23rd, 
1866 ; one imago appeared August 23rd, 1866, another 
May 21st. See pp. 52, 53. 

Hadena oleracea. 

3, 3 a } 3 b, larvae after last moult ; on groundsel, 
chickweed, etc. ; figured August 19th, 1859 ; also on 
goosefoot and dock, figured September 18th, .1872, 
imago emerging July 3rd, 1873. 

Hadena pisi. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae in various stages ; on young shoots 
of weeping willow; figured July 31st, 1860; 4, on 
Pteris aquilina, figured September 9th, 1873. 

Hadena thalassina. 

5, 5 a, 5 b } 5 c, larvae after last moult ; several on 
knot-grass, figured July 26th, 1865, imagos emerging 
May 31st to June 4th, 1866 ; 5, on hawthorn, figured 
August 15th, 1861, imago emerging June 14th, 1862 ; 
5 b, one of two on apple, oak, etc., from Mrs. Hutchin- 
son, figured September 2nd, 1879, bred June 1st, 1880. 
See pp. 53 — 55. 



PLATE XOV. 

Hadena contigua. 

1,1a, 16, larvae after last moult; on nut, dock, etc. ; 
figured September 16th, 1860, and September 16th, 
1863 ; imago emerged June 17th, 1861. 

Hadena genista. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on chick weed and persicaria ; figured July 14th and 
29th to August 7th, 1865 ; imago emerged June 11th 
to 13th, 1866. See pp. 55, 56. 

Hadena eectilinea. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
sallow; full-grown September 23rd, 1864, hybernating 
till the spring, but not feeding again ; a young larva 
found on balsam (Impatiens), July 15th, 1876, fed up 
on whortleberry in autumn ; imago bred June, 1877. 
See pp. 56 — 58. 

Xylooampa lithorhiza. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after last moult ; on woodbine, 
June 14th, 1860, imago emerged March 4th, 1861 ; on 
May 28th, 1864; 4b, on honeysuckle, June 24th, 1867. 

OLOANTHA S0LIDAG1NIS. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult ; on whortleberry and 
cowberry, July 5th, 1862, and on bilberry, May 20th, 
1866. See pp. 58, 59. 



Plate XCV: 




F.CMoo-re'ittK. 



W.BUCKLER del 



We at , Tsfewxrj.an.mjj:/. 



Plate XC VI. 



,&#- 




P.C.Moore lath.. 



Wes-t ; Nev*ari-3.:n_ imp. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



PLATE XCVI. 

Calocampa vetusta. 

1, larva after last moult; on persicaria, sorrel, dock, 
etc. ; July 13th, 1868. 

Calooampa exoleta. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, larvaB in various stages of growth ; 
on knot-grass and dock, June 3rd, 11th, and 27th, 
1868 ; and young larva on Stachys sylvatica and 
bryony, June 20th to 27th, 1874 

Xylina rhizolitha. 

3, 3 <x, larvas after last moult ; a cannibal ; on oak, 
June 7th, 1861, June 23rd, 1863, and June 7th, 1871 ; 
imagos emerged October 5th, 1863, and October 16th, 
1871. See pp. 60— 62. 

Xylina semijbrunnea. 

4, 4 a, larvaB after last moult ; reared from eggs on 
Fraxinus excelsior ; figured June 16th, 1870; imagos 
emerged September 21st to 27th, 1870. See pp. 62, 63. 

Xylina petrificata. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvaB in various stages of growth ; a 
cannibal ; on sallow, June 21st, 1861 ; and two on 
ash, June 8th and 13th, 1867 ; imago emerged Novem- 
ber 10th, 1867. 

Xylina conformis. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, 6 d, larvaB in various stages of growth ; 
on alder, May 27th, June 2nd to 7th and 17th, 1871, 
and two larvaB June 28th, 29th, 1872 ; imago emerged 
August 17th, 1871. See pp. 63—67. 



PLATE XCVIL 



CUCULLTA VERBASCI. 



1, 1 a, lb, 1 c, Id, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; on Scrophularia nodosa, 8. aquatica and Ver- 
bascum thapsus, July 12th, 13th, and 22nd, 1867, 
and on 8. aquatica, July 2nd, 1867; 1 a, on Verbascum 
lychnitis, June 23rd, 1874; imago emerged May 15th, 
1875 ; 1 d, on V. thapsus, June 21st, 1858 ; imago 
emerged April 28th, 1859. See p. 67. 



CUCULLIA SOROPHDLARI^. 

2, 2a, 2b, 2c, larvae after last moult ; on Scrophu- 
laria nodosa, July 4th and 8th, 1867. See pp. 68, 69. 

CUCULLIA LTCHNITIS. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3d, larvae after last moult ; on Ver- 
bascum nigrum, September 5th, 1861, August 5th, 
7th, and 21st, 1863 ; imago emerged June 9th, 1865. 



1 ^» 



Plate XCTVIL 







lOL 





«T ** 



16 









3 a 



^-*«v 






*"-<' 



2"b 



r E r "^l 




lei 



fifU* <rV.*' A* Wit."-'* .*-■■> * ™jff 




2 c 



A.^V 







i^£ 



\M 



3b 



<agm 



3 ol> 



F.CMooTr-e lith. 





(tW^**? 



3d. 

ne s"t TSTe'vrrn.snri. imp 



W.BUCKLEK del. 



Plate XCVm. 




F.CMoore litb. 



~West,Newt£isuri rmp. 



WBUCKLEB.Asl. 



PLATE XCVIII. 

CUOULLIA ASTERIS. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larvae after last moult ; on flowers of 
golden-rod, September 20th, 1867 ; 1 a, on China aster, 
eating the flower ; 1 c, on golden-rod, August 22nd, 
1871 ; imago emerged July 24th, 1872. 

CUOULLIA GNAPHALII. 

2, 2 a, 2 b 3 larvse after last moult ; on leaves of 
Solidago virgaurea, September 26th } 1869, August 
26th and September 2nd, 1871. See pp. 69 — 71. 

CUOULLIA ABSINTHII. 

3, 3 # , 3 b, larvae after last moult; on seeds of 
wormwood, September 13th, 1862; on flowers and 
seeds of wormwood, September 3rd and 8bh, 1866 ; 
imago emerged July 29th, 1867. 

CUOULLIA CHAMOMILE. 

4, 4 a, 4 b 9 4 c, 4 d 9 larvae after last moult ; on wild 
chamomile flowers ; Plymouth, June 24th to July 6th, 
1863 ; Torquay, July 9th, 1870, imago May 21st; on 
Anthemis cotula, July 23rd, 1870. 

CUOULLIA UMBRATIOA. 

5,5 a, 5 b } he, larvae after last moult ; on sow-thistle, 
hiding from daylight, August 18th to September 1st, 
1866; two on Lactuca virosa, August 5th to 12th, 
1874 ; $ $ imagos emerged, July 13th, 1875 ; and 
one larva August 15th, 1864. See pp. 71 — 73. 



PLATE XCIX. 

Heliothis marginata. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, Id, 1 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth; on thorny rest-harrow, August 24th, 1861; 
on birch, August 3rd, 1861, ? imago emerging June 
25th, 1863; on Ononis arvensis, August 31st, 1861 ; 
on nut ; on rest-harrow, but fed on roses, birch, and 
nut, and fond of rest-harrow flowers, September 19th, 
1863, imago emerging June 18th, 1864 ; on August 
15th, 1867; 1, on sallow, August 25th, 1871, imago 
emerging July 17th, 1872. 

Heliothis peltigera. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c 9 2 d 9 2 e, larvae after last moult ; on 
henbane and flowers of rest-harrow, July 29th, 1862 ; 
on henbane, July 13th, 16th, 20th, and 22nd, imagos 
emerging September 9th and 14th, 1868 ; one on 
Datura stramonium, October 16th, 1867. 

Heliothis dipsacea. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3d, 3 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; 3, on purple-clover flower, August 27th, 
1867 ; 3 a, on rest-harrow, August 28th, 1873, littoral, 
Slapton-on-Sea; 3 b, on Grepis virens, September 
11th, 1873, imago out July 10th, 1874; 3 c, on flowers 
and seeds of Ononis arvensis, September 12th, 1873 ; 
3 d, on sorrel and toadflax seeds, September 15th, 
1870 ; 3 e, on seed-capsules of Silene otites, August 
25th, 1870. See pp. 75—78. 



Plate XCK. 




F.G.Moore lith. 



¥est,NCTnaan imp. 



W . BUCKLER . cLel. 



Plsute C. 









2 a 






4 a, 1 



4:b 





4o 







?.W.Px-aLa.-\vi: "titk . 



^Wes-fc,nS"e-vnza-a-n. imp. 



"W. BUCKLER ciei. 



PLATE 0. 

Anaeta melanopa. 

1, la, lb, larvae in various stages of growth; 
reared from eggs on sallow, July 4th, 8th, and 14th, 
1875. See pp. 78—80. 

Anarta cordigera. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
Arbutus uva-ursi, fed well on A. unedo, July 4th, 9th, 
16th, and 17th, 1875 ; Rev. John Hellins bred the 
moth on May 1st, 1876, having raised these larvae from 
eggs laid on the 1st of June, 1875. See pp. 80 — 82. 

Anarta myrtilli. 

3, 3 a, larvae after last moult ; on ling, September 
15th, 1869. 

Heliodes arbuti. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
feeding in seed-capsules of Gerastium vulgatum, from 
eggs laid in the flowers; figured June 11th, 13th, 
15th, and 18th, 1881. See pp. 83—88. 

Ageophila sulphuratjs. 

b, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on Convolvulus arvensis, July 26th and August 7th, 
1867, August 19th, 1871, and July 15th, 1872. See 
pp. 89, 90. 



PLATE 01. 

ACONTIA LUCTUOSA. 

1, la, larvss after last moult; on Convolvulus 
arvensis, July 8th, 1868. See pp. 90 — 92. 

Erastria venustula. 

2, 2 a, larvaa after last moult ; on flowers of 
Tormentilla officinalis, July 22nd, 1862 ; imago emerged 
June 5th, 1863. 

Erastria fuscula. 

3 ; 3 a, 3 b, larva? in various stages of growth ; on 
Molinia caerulea, September 15th, 18th, 22nd, and 
26th, 1873 ; imago emerged June 2nd, 1874. See 
pp. 29, 93. 

Bankia bankiana. 

4, 4 a, larva? in various stages of growth; from 
eggs on Poa annua, sent from Ely by Rev. G. H. 
Raynor, July 18th and 31st, 1882; one male bred 
29th June, 1883. See pp. 94—96. 

Hydrelia uncana. 

5,5 a, larvse in various stages of growth ; on Car ex 
si/lvatica, July 28th, 1868 ; full-grown, August 8th, 
1868. See pp. 96, 97. 

Brephos parthenias. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvse after last moult ; on birch, June 
13th, 1861, and June 16th, 1862; imagos emerged 
March 26th, 1862, and June 15th, 1863. 

Brephos notha. 

7, la, 7b, 7 c, 7d, larvae in various stages of growth; 
on aspen, June 2nd and 12th, 1869, June 7th and 
12th, 1869, June 10th, 1870 ; imagos emerged April 
9th, 1870, and April 4th and 7th, 1871. See pp. 
98—100. 



Plate CI. 







3a 







Q)Ou 



5 cu 








7 co 




F.W.Erokaw'k Ixtk. 



W.BUCZLEB dial. 



"West,T>Tevrat_a,Ti imi: 



Plaie CII. 





la 






' , "*" r - 





4-Ou 



- 









'V 








E'rV0 1 a?oka,-Wk. litk. 



~We srt, ISTe-wrtxaxL i^np . 



W. BUCKLER oL&L- 



PLATE OIL 

ABROSTOLA URTICiE. 

1, 1 a, larvae after last moult; on stinging-nettle, 
August 30th, 1860, and July 31st, 1861 ; imago 
June 1st, 1862. 

Abrostola triplasia. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult ; on hop and nettle, 
August 18th, 1862 ; imagos, June 18th to 30th, 1863. 

Plusia ohrysitis. 

3, larva after last moult; on stinging-nettle, May 
23rd, 1874 ; another on stinging-nettle, April 15th, 
imago June 5th, 1869. 

Plusia bractea. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult; on Lamium album 
and stinging-nettle, April 30th and May 6th ; imago 
June 20th, 1873. See pp. 103—107. 

Plusia festuo^. 

5, larva after last moult ; reared on coarse grasses 
and Sparganium, May 8th, 1866. 

Plusia iota. 

6, 6 a, larvae after last moult ; 6, reared from eggs, 
May 17th, 1875 ; 6 a, on white dead-nettle, February 
19th, 1862; others on Lamium album and L. pur- 
pureum, honeysuckle, and cow-parsley, April 22nd, 
imago June 4th, 1875. See pp. 107 — 110. 

Plusia pulohrina. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae after last moult ; on groundsel, 
April 26th, imagos June 12th to 16th, 1862 ; on 
Geum urbanum, April 8th, imago June 5th, 1868 ; on 
cow-parsley, Lamium album, and honeysuckle, May 
6th, 1876.' See pp. 110—112. 

Plusia gamma. 

8, 8 a, 8 b, larvae after last moult ; 8, August 1st, 
1859; 8a, on clover flowers, July 18th, imago August 
9th, 1864; 8 b, on Convolvulus arvensis, July 21st, 
imago August 10th, 1872. See pp. 112—115. 

Plusia interrogationis. 

9, larva after last moult; on heather, June 10th, 
imago July 8th, 1869. See pp. 115 — 117. 



PLATE CIII. 

GoNOPTERA LIBATRIX. 

1, larva after last moult; on sallow, August 3rd, 
1860; imago September 12th, 1860. 

Amphipyra pyramidea. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult; 2 a, on oak, 
June 8th, 1860; 2 b, on rose, June 7th, imago July 
31st, 1865. 

Amphipyra tragopogonis. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult ; 3 a, on sallow, 
June 13th, imago July 29th, 1874; 3 b, on garden 
fennel; 3 and another, June 12th — 15th, imagos 
August 8th — 15th, 1861 ; and June 23rd, imago 
August 10th, 1863 ; on garden strawberry. 

Mania typioa. 

4, young larva; 4a, 4fr, 4c, larvae after last moult; 
on buds of sallow, April 15th ; imago July 7th, 1861 ; 
also April 29th to May 8th, 1861, on dock, grass, 
primrose; imagos June 26th to 30th, 1861. 

Mania maura. 

5, young larva ; 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult ; on 
hawthorn, lettuce, and dock, April 30th to May 1st; 
imagos July 15th to 24th, 1862. 



Plsie CUT. 




FiW3?xolta--wk. litk. 



"WestjUewriasun. iin.]p. 



W.BUCKLEB de£. 





Plate CW. 





3 OL 



2cu 



3 b 




3 c 




57: 

"F."W.Ib;dluajwk M. 



56 



"Wes^lTe-wroaxL irrno. 



W.BTJCKLER (Ul. 



PLATE CIV. 

TOXOOAMPA PASTINUM. 

1, larva after last moult; on Vicia cracca, May 
19th ; imago July 7th, 1866. 

TOXOOAMPA CRACOW. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult ; near Lynmouth, 
Lynton, North Devon, on Vicia sepium, proper food 
V. si/lvatica, June 20th ; imago July 25th, 1865. See 
pp. 117, 118. 

Stilbia anomala. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c } 3 d, 3 e, larvae in various stages of 
growth; 3 b 9 3 c, 3d, 3 e, after last moult; January 
21st, February 3rd to 8th, and February 10th ; full- 
fed February 28th ; imago September 4th, 1865. See 
pp. 118, 119. 

Catooala fuaxini. 

4, larva after fifth moult, June 16th, 1881 ; 4 a, 
larva after last moult, June 30th, 1881 ; reared from 
German ova on Populus fastigiata ; three moths bred, 
a female on August 10th, a male August 14th, and a 
female August 19th, 1881. See pp. 119—121. 

Catooala nupta. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult; 5 b, flat under-side; 
5c, pupa; 5, on willow, June 17th, 1859; imago 
August 15th, 1859 ; 5 a, figured July 4th, 1870. See 
p. 121. 



PLATE OV. 

Oatooala promissa. 

1, young larva ; 1 a 9 1 b, larvae after last moult ; 1 c 9 
pupa; 1, 1 a, on oak, from eggs, May 22nd, 24th, 27th ; 
imago out July 24th, 1876; 1 b, beaten from oak by 
Mr. F. F. Freeman, June 9th, 1882 ; male imago bred 
August 9th, 1882. See pp. 121—127. 

Catooala sponsa. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult ; 2 b t pupa ; 2 and 
another, from eggs laid in the beginning of September, 
1865 ; hatched in April, 1866, as the oak budded and 
blossomed ; fed on oak blossoms and leaves ; full- 
grown June 2nd, 1866; imago end of July, 1866. 

2 a, May 20th, 1871 ; imago July 25th, 1871. See 
pp. 127—129. 

BUOLIDIA MI. 

3,3 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; 3 b, larva 
coiled up ; 3, swept from marram, fed up on ribbon- 
grass, September 4th, 1872; imago June 13th, 1873; 

3 a, 3 b, found on thorny rest-harrow; ate grass; 
figured August 25th, 1861 ; imago May 20th, 1862. 
See pp. 130—132. 

EUOLIDIA GLYPHICA. 

4, larva after last moult ; on sainfoin, clover, &c, 
August 30th, 1862. See pp. 132—134. 

Phytometra ^enea. 

5, 5 a } larvae after last moult ; 5 b, cocoon ; 5 c, pupa ; 
on Poly gala vulgaris (milkwort), September 1st, 1865, 
and July 29th, 1873. See pp. 134—137. 



Plaie CV. 




T.W.'F^oWaxJk. litk. 



¥.BUCKLER del. 



W=3t.lTe-wj3aajn. im.p . 



EAY SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED 1844. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OF WORKS ON 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



LIST 



OF 



COUNCIL, OFFICERS, LOCAL SECRETARIES, 

AND MEMBERS, 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



TITLES OE THE PUBLICATIONS OE THE SOCIETY 



CORRECTED TO MARCH, 1895. 



A 



Council aito (Sffiora oi \\t |Ug jioaeig, 



Elected lUh June, 1894. 



The Rt. Hon. Sib JOHN LUBBOCK, Bast., M.P., P.R.S. 



€onntxL 



C. G. Barrett, Esq., F.E.S. 

Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, M.A., F.E.S. 

Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S. 

F. M. Campbell, Esq., F.L.S. 

P. Crowley, Esq., F.L.S. 

S. Edwards, Esq., F.L.S. 

H. C. Gatty, Esq., LL.D., F.L.S. 

Dr. J. Harley, F.L.S. 

J. Hopklnson, Esq., F.L.S. 

A. Lister, Esq., F.L.S. 

Dr. G. B. Longstaff, L.C.C. 



Dr. Meiklejohn, F.L.S. 

A. D. Michael, Esq., F.L.S. 

G. T. Porritt, Esq., F.L.S. 

Prop. E. B. Pottlton, F.R.S. 

Dr. Power, F.L.S. 

Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, F.R.S. 

Dr. S. J. A. Salter, F.R.S. 

Prof. C. Stewart, V.P.L.S. 

Capt. C. Tyler, F.L.S. 

Lord Walsingham, M.A., F.R.S. 



R. McLACHLAN, Esq., F.R.S., 23, Clarendon Road, Lewisham, S.E. 

Jljeoeiarg. 



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Lewisham, S.E. 



LIST OP LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



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* The Subscribers are requested to inform the Secretary of any errors or 
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9 

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10 

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11 

Hughes, W. R., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, Wood House, Hands- 
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12 

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13 

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14 

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Salvin, Osbert, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square. , 
Samson and Wallin, Messrs., London. 
Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., The Hawthorns, Caterham Valley, 

Surrey. 
Sanford, W. A., Esq., F.G.S., Nynehead Court, near Wellington, 

Somersetshire. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 3, Hanover square, W. 
Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Shillitoe, B., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.G. 
Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C. 
Slack, H. I., Esq., F.G.S., Ashdown Cottage, Forest row, Sussex. 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Winsley, Bradford-on-Avon. 
Slatter, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., The Drift, Evesham. 
Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.S.A., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W. 
Smith, F. W., Esq., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 
Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, "W.C. 
South London Entomological Society, Hibernia Chambers, London 

Bridge, S.E. 
South London Microscopical Club, care of J. Guardia, Esq., Brixton 

Hall, Acre lane, Brixton, S.W. 
South, R., Esq., F.E.S., Oxford Road, Macclesfield. 



15 

Southport Free Library. 

Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 

St. Albans Public Library. 

St. Andrews University Library, St. Andrews. 

Stearns, A. E., Esq., F.E.S., 99, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Ephraim Lodge, The Common, Tunbridge 

Wells. 
Stedman, A., Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., L.M., The Croft, Great Book 

ham, Leatherhead. 
Stevens, B. F., Esq., 4, Trafalgar square, W.C. 
Stewart, Prof. C, V.P.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm. 
Straker, J. H., Esq., Stagshaw House, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Strasbourg University Library. 

Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., Dyson House, Burley Woods, Leeds. 
Sunderland Subscription Library. 
Swanston, W., Esq., F.G.S., 50, King street, Belfast. 

Thompson, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Woodstock, Waverley road, 

Liverpool. 
Thornewill, Rev. C. F„ F.E.S., Vicarage, Bakewell. 
Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 
Townsend, F., Esq.,M.A., M.P., F.L.S., Honington Hall, Shipston-on- 

Stour. 
Trimble, Mrs. James, Egerton House, Egerton, Kent. 
Tugwell, W. H., Esq., 6, Lewisham road, Greenwich, S.E. 
Turner, Professor Sir William, F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 
Tyler, Captain Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S., Elberton, New West End, 

Hampstead, N.W. 

University College, London. 
Upsala, University of, Sweden. 

Vicars, John, Esq., 8, St. Alban's square, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter. 

Waldegrave, Earl, 20, Bryanstone square, W. 

Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., F.L.S., Nant Glyn, Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire. 



16 

Walker, Eev. Dr., F.L.S., Dais Mallard, Cricklewood, N.W. 
Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Merton 

Hall, Thetford, Norfolk. 
Warburg, J. C, Esq., 8, Porchester terrace, W. 
Warden, Dr. Charles, Greenhurst, 31, Newall street, Birmingham. 
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 
Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 
Wellington College, Berks. 
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, Herbert Jones, Esq., F.L.S., Hon. 

Treas., 15, Montpelier Row, Blackheath, S.E. 
Wheeler, F. D., Esq., LL.D., F.E.S., Paragon House School, Norwich. 
Whittle, F. G., Esq., 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, Essex. 
Wickes, W. D., Esq., 32, Burlington G-ardens, Acton, "W. 
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Secretary, 25, Granville 

park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol. 
Wood, J. H„ Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough, Yorkshire. 
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 



Yale University, New Haven, U.S. 
York Philosophical Society, York. 



Zoological Society, 3, Hanover square, W. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES 



OF THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 



FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844, TO 
MARCH, 1895. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED 
BY THE HAY SOCIETY. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., M.A., F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the ( Biographie 
Universelle; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Busk, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



20 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 

III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusse. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 21 

II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Moliusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Moliusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 



22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



ISSUED BY THE KAY SOCIETY. 23 



For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to 



For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 



24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



Fob, the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Gunther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
L.L.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, L.L.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 25 

II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S. 

8vo. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 



For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty- seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 27 



For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady. 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 



28 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE BAY SOCIETY. 



For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buekton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidaa. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. I. 
The Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. II. 
The Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 29 



For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidae. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 



For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. III. 
The concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-sixth Y"ear, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. IV. 
The first portion of the Noctuae. Sixteen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited (in part) by the late H. T. Stainton, 
F.R.S. Vol. V. The second portion of the Noctuae. 
Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



30 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. IV. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 
(Completing the Work.) 



For the Fiftieth Year, 1893. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VI. The 
third portion of the Noctuse. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 



PEINTED BY ADLAED AND SON, 
BAETHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVEE SQUAEE, W.